Objective To systematically review the health economic evaluation studies in which externalities of antibacterial drug uses were identified.Methods PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, WanFang Data and VIP databases were electronically searched to collect health economic evaluation studies in which externalities of antibacterial drug uses were identified from inception to December 31st, 2020. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Descriptive analysis was then performed.Results A total of 14 studies were included. Negative externalities and their impacts on costs and/or effectiveness were examined in 13 literature, and positive externalities in terms of an improvement in disease control were included in only one study. No study was found in which both negative and positive externalities were included. The methods used to quantify negative externalities included: only costs associated with drug resistance per prescription or per unit were calculated; both costs and health impacts associated with the second/third line treatments followed a treatment failure (due to drug resistance) were calculated using a decision tree. In one study in which positive externalities were measured, both health gain and cost reduction from an improvement in disease control (as a benefit of antibacterial drug uses) were calculated by constructing a dynamic model at the population level.Conclusions We propose that both the positive and negative externalities should be included in health economic evaluation. This can be achieved by measuring the relevant costs and health impacts in a broader perspective, using a disease-transmission dynamic model. In addition, to achieve an improved health utility measurement, disability-adjusted-life years rather than quality-adjusted-life years should be encouraged for use. Finally, both costs and effectiveness should be discounted.
SONG Yihang, DING Ningxin, ZHOU Huixuan, DAI Xiaotong, ZHANG Wei. The economic evaluation of antibacterial drugs and externalities from antibacterial drug uses: a systematic review. Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, 2021, 21(6): 669-675. doi: 10.7507/1672-2531.202012158