ObjectiveTo systematically review the efficacy and safety of pediatric tuina in the treatment of children with acute diarrhea.MethodsCNKI, VIP, WanFang Data, CBM, PubMed and The Cochrane Library databases were electronically searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of children acute diarrhea with tuina from inception to November 20th, 2020. Two researchers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Meta-analysis was then performed using RevMan 5.3 software.ResultsA total of 15 RCTs involving 1 464 children were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that compared with Western medicine, tuina for children with acute diarrhea could increase the cure rate (RR=1.43, 95%CI 1.26 to 1.63, P<0.001), shorten the time for the frequency of diarrhea to return to normal (MD=−0.86, 95%CI −1.05 to −0.66, P<0.001) and the time for stool traits to return to normal (MD=−1.07, 95%CI −1.15 to −0.99, P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between tuina and Western medicine (RR=0.25, 95%CI 0.03 to 2.23, P=0.22).ConclusionsCurrent evidence shows that tuina has a superior effect on treating children with acute diarrhea, the incidence of adverse reactions is not increased. Due to limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high-quality studies are needed to verify above conclusions.
Evidence mapping is a new type of comprehensive evidence research method that systematically collects, evaluates, and synthesizes existing evidence to clarify research status and gaps, thereby promoting scientific research and decision-making. After nearly 20 years of development, the methodology of evidence mapping has been continuously improved, and has gained wide attention and recognition from the international community. China has paid much attention to evidence mapping at an early stage, but there are relatively few theoretical and practical researches, and the concept definition is inconsistent. This paper introduces the methodology of evidence mapping production and reporting for researchers to use for reference, with a view to further promoting the research and development of evidence mapping in China.
As an essential tool for clinical practice, the clinical practice guidelines have been continuously completed and the quality of the guidelines has been improved. However, there are still issues in updating the guidelines and recommendations. This article introduces the living guideline formulation method, through dynamic monitoring, timely inclusion of new evidence, and living update of recommendations, etc. to improve the timeliness of clinical guidelines. The article aims to provide methodological references for the timely transformation of evidence and the update of guidelines.
ObjectiveTo systematically review the efficacy and safety of different tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML).MethodsPubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, WanFang Data and CNKI databases were electronically searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of nilotinib, dasatinib, flumatinib and imatinib for CML from inception to August, 2020. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies; network meta-analysis was then performed using Stata 15.0 software and R 3.4.0 software.ResultsA total of 8 RCTs involving 2 775 patients were included. Compared with other TKIs, flumatinib had higher 3-month early molecular response and 1-year progression free survival, and the incidence of serious side effects was relatively low. Major molecular response and complete cytogenetic response were significantly superior to imatinib, and had the same or similar effects to other second-generation TKIs.ConclusionsCurrent evidence shows that flumartinib in the treatment of CML is obviously superior to imatinib, has the same or similar effect with other second generation TKIs. Due to limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high quality studies are needed to verify above conclusions.
Unprocessed red meat and processed meat consumption: dietary guideline recommendations from the NutriRECS consortium is based on five high quality systematic reviews that were developed using the nutritional recommendations guideline development process. The guideline develop recommendations primarily focus on participant important health outcomes (such as the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular disease and mortality) related to the consumption of red and processed meats. Based on the estimated average weekly intake of these meats (3 to 4 servings/week) in North America and Western Europe, the panel suggests that adults continue their current unprocessed red meat and processed meat consumption. The present paper interprets the guideline.
At present, the network meta-analysis has been rapidly developed and widely used, and it has the characteristic of quantifying and comparing the relative advantages of two or more different interventions for a single health outcome. However, comparison of multiple interventions has increased the complexity of drawing conclusions from network meta-analysis, and ignorance of the certainty of evidence has also led to misleading conclusions. Recently, the GRADE (grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation) working group proposed two approaches for obtaining conclusions from a network meta-analysis of interventions, namely, the partially contextualised framework and the minimally contextualised framework. When using partially contextualised framework, authors should establish ranges of magnitudes of effect that represent a trivial to no effect, minimal but important effect, moderate effect, and large effect. The guiding principles of this framework are that interventions should be grouped in categories based on the magnitude of the effect and its benefit or harm; and that when classifying, consider the point estimates, the rankings, and the certainty of the evidence comprehensively to draw conclusions. This article employs a case to describe and explain the principles and four steps of partially contextualised framework to provide guidance for the application of this GRADE approach in the interpretation of results and conclusions drawing from a network meta-analysis.
The primary advantage of network meta-analysis is the capability to quantify and compare different interventions for the same diseases and rank their benefits or harms according to a certain health outcome. The inclusion of a variety of interventions has increased the complexity of the conclusions drawing from a network meta-analysis, and based on the ranking results alone may lead to misleading conclusions. At present, there are no accepted standards for the conclusion drawing from a network meta-analysis. In November 2020, based on the evidence certainty results of network meta-analysis, the GRADE (Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) working group proposed two approaches to draw conclusions from a network meta-analysis: the partially contextualised framework and the minimally contextualised framework. This paper aimed to introduce principles and procedures of the minimal contextualised framework through a specific example to provide guidance for the network meta-analysis authors in China to present and interpret the results using minimally contextualised framework.
Acute diarrhea has a high incidence in children. Pediatric tuina has been widely used in children with acute diarrhea in China. However, there is no guideline on the treatment of tuina for children with acute diarrhea. This guideline was developed following evidence-based principles and the World Health Organization handbook for guideline development. The linked systematic review was conducted following the Cochrane handbook. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were evaluated using the GRADE approach. The reporting followed the RIGHT statement. Seven clinical questions (2 foreground questions and 5 background questions) were identified by literature review and expert consensus. Based on the linked systematic review and through comprehensive consideration of the balance of benefit and harm, quality of evidence, patient preferences, and other resources, we formulated the recommendations using Delphi expert consensus. We suggested combination of a weak recommendation for tuina with Western medicine usual care to treat children with acute diarrhea. This guideline can be used by clinicians and nurses in the department of traditional Chinese medicine pediatrics, and department of pediatric tuina, and can also be used as a reference for relevant clinicians of Western medicine and is also applicable to all institutions that practice tuina treatment.