Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a kind of rare malignancy which often occurs in children and is related to dysplasia. It always involves in pleura and lung. PPB is misdiagnosed easily because of its special pathophysiological characters and complex biological behavior. Early detection and correct treatment are very important for thoracic surgeon to cure PPB. This paper reviews the advance of pathophysiological characters, molecular genetic characters, clinical manifestation, clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and treatment and prognosis of PPB.
Objective To investigate the research advance in repair of the peripheral nerve defect with an acellular nerve allograft. Methods The recent related literature was extensively and comprehensively reviewed. The methods and the effects of the allografts with acellular nerves were analyzed. Results The immunogenicity of the allograft was more significantly relieved by the chemical treatment than by the physicaltreatment. The effect of the chemical treatment on the axon regeneration was better than that of the physical treatment. Conclusion Because of the limitation of the host Schwann cell translation in the longsegment acellular nerve allografts, the effect of Schwann cells is not satisfactory and regeneration of the nerve is limited. So, the recellularized treatment with some related measures can enhance the host Schwann cell translation so that this problem can be solved.
Objective To systematically review the effectiveness of amiodarone in treating repurfusion arrhythmia (RA) after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), so as to provide high quality evidence for formulating the rational thrombolytic therapy for AMI. Methods Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) on amiodarone in treating RA after thrombolytic therapy for AMI were electronically retrieved in PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2012), CBM, CNKI, VIP and WanFang Data from inception to January, 2013. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed quality. Then RevMan 5.1 software was used for meta-analysis. Results A total of 5 RCTs involving 440 patients were included. The results of meta-analysis suggested that, compared with the blank control, amiodarone reduced the incidence of RA after thrombolytic therapy in treating AMI (RR=0.60, 95%CI 0.48 to 0.74, Plt;0.000 01) and the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (RR=0.47, 95%CI 0.26 to 0.85, P=0.01). It neither affected the recanalization rate of occluded arteries after thrombolytic therapy (RR=1.00, 95%CI 0.88 to 1.15, P=0.94) nor decreased the mortality after surgery (RR=0.33, 95%CI 0.10 to 1.09, P=0.07). Conclusion Current evidence indicated that, amiodarone can decrease the incidence of RA. Unfortunately, the mortality rate can’t be reduced by amiodarone. Due to the limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high quality studies are needed to verify the above conclusion
Objective To introduce how to use Stata software to implement the randomization of clinical trials. Methods Some examples were taken to describe how to implement the randomization of each kind of clinical trials. Results Stata implemented its required functions, such as simple randomization, stratified randomization, block randomization and the randomization of group treatment. Conclusion Stata can easily implement the randomization of clinical trials.
Objective To assess the quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) relevant to COPD besides chronic bronchitis and chronic pulmonary cor disease in strengthening immune published in Chinese medical journals to provide scientific basis of systematic review (SR) of regulating the immune function of COPD in Chinese herbs. Methods 54 articles with clinical controlled trials were obtained by electronic searching and handsearching, and the method for randomized allocation, blindness, multi-centres, sample sizes, diagnosis criteria, exclusion criteria, source of cases, immune markers (cellular immunity, humoral immunity, erythrocyte immunity, nonspecific immunity), the clinical outcome assessment, statistical management, course of treatment and the side effects or adverse drag reaction, follow-up were investigated and then methodologically evaluated. According to the investigation, literatures with the method for randomized allocation, correct controls, appropriate sample sizes (≥60), the nation-wide diagnosis criteria, the objective clinical outcome assessment distinct statistical method were stipulated as the high-quality ones relatively. Results Among the 54 trials, 70.4% had explicit diagnosis criteria, 18.5% with exclusion criteria, 20.4% with comparability of baseline, 37.0% with distinct statistical method. In the therapy, 63.0% were with Chinese herbs. Conclusion The selected 7 articles belong to the high quality and possibly are to be explored in Meta-analysis.
Medical ethics must be considered for protecting the fights and interests of patients in clinical trials. Now the fights of the subjects are more and more emphasised, but there are some problems. It is evidence-based medicine (EBM) and emphasis of evidence that need the high-quality clinical trials, yet it violates the principle of ethics in some degree. It will be helpful for the administrators to supervise the clinical trials on drugs well from the point of ethical views.
【Abstract】Objective To explore the feasibility that the recipient against donor antigen-specific T lymphocytes clones are formed,and the suicide genes are induced into the clone. In the end it may induce the transplanted-organ tolerance. Methods The recipient rats were immunized by the donor rats-splenocytes, then the recipient’s T cell were isolated, purified and diluted with limited-dilute methods into single cell.The T cells were cultured by adding raise cells,ConA or IL2 under the different concentration and at last the T cell clone were formed. Results A stable recipient against donor antigen-specific T cell clone was established. The difference among the different immune groups was very significant(tgt;t0.05). The T cell clone was not formed without raise cells or only with raise cells. The rare clone could be formed by ConA stimulation but without IL-2. The clone-forming rate was associated with concentration of IL-2. ConclusionThe mature T cell is able to proliferate to form clone when the condition is suitable. The recipient is immunized with donor rats spleen cellular antigen. The T cells clones selected in the end are donor antigen-specific.
Abstract: Objective To explore the significance of peripheral serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in preoperative staging of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer. Methods Fifty patients, including 30 males and 20 females, with complete clinical data and final pathological diagnosis of nonsmall cell lung cancer were treated in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from September 2006 to November 2007. Their age ranged from 36 to 76 years old (62.4±10.0 years old). Among the patients, there were 26 patients of adenocarcinoma, 23 patients of squamous cell carcinoma and one patient of large cell carcinoma. Twenty other normal subjects were chosen to form normal control, including 11 males and 9 females, aged from 18 to 67 years old (43.8±14.2 years old). Peripheral serum HGF and TGF-β were measured with enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the relationship between the level of HGF, TGF-β and preoperative staging was analyzed. Results The peripheral serum HGF and TGF-β level has no relation with patient’s age, sex, smoking history or histology type. The level of HGF in the T2 and T3 patients was significantly higher than that of normal control (373.90±234.00 pg/ml vs. 211.30±154.60 pg/ml, t=2.759, P=0008; 563.80±316.10 pg/ml vs. 211.30±154.60 pg/ml, t=4076, P=0.000). The level of TGF-β in the T-3 patients was significantly higher than that of normal control (3.34±2.80 ng/ml vs. 1.82±0.90 ng/ml, t=2.190, P=0.037). The level of TGF-β in the N1-2 patients was significantly higher than that of the N0 patients (2.60±2.00 ng/ml vs. 1.53±0.74 ng/ml, t=-2.387, P=0.021). TGF-β level (5.97±2.65 ng/ml) in patients with distant metastasis (stage Ⅳ) was significantly higher than that of patients in other stages. Conclusion The HGF and TGF-β level is related to the staging of lung cancer. Such examinations combined before operation may present a reference value for preoperative staging and providing the best treatment plan for the patients.
Objective To evaluate the short-term effectiveness after static anatomical reconstruction of posterolateral complex (PLC) in the treatment of traumatic multi-ligament injury of the knee. Methods Between June 2007 and July 2011, 23 cases of multi-ligament injury of the knee were treated. There were 15 males and 8 females with an average age of 41 years (range, 19-56 years). The injury was caused by traffic accident in 9 cases, sprain in 7 cases, bruise in 3 cases, and falling from height in 4 cases. The time between injury and operation was 13-78 days (mean, 32 days). The results of posterior drawer test and Lachman test were positive, and all cases complicated by varus and external rotation instability. The Lysholm score of the knee was 43.4 ± 5.7. According to International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scoring, all were rated as grade D. According to Fanelli typing, all were classified as type C. The X-ray films showed that load-induced posterior motion of the knee was (13.3 ± 4.2) mm; the lateral joint space was (15.1 ± 2.4) mm. Anterior cruciate ligament/posterior cruciate ligament and PLC were reconstructed simultaneously with auto-semitendinosus, gracilis tendon, and allogeneic tendon. Results All incisions healed by first intention, and no complication occurred. All patients were followed up 12-56 months (mean, 28 months). At last follow-up, the results of posterior drawer test and Lachman test were negative; 3 cases had varus instability, and 2 cases had external rotation instability. The Lysholm score of the knee was 85.6 ± 16.7, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=11.469, P=0.000). According to IKDC scoring, 7 cases were rated as grade A, 12 as grade B, and 4 as grade C; significant difference was found when compared with preoperative value (Z=4.285, P=0.000). The load-induced posterior motion of the knee was (5.1 ± 4.4) mm, the lateral joint space was (3.2 ± 2.8) mm, showing significant differences when compared with preoperative ones (P lt; 0.05). Conclusion In the treatment of traumatic multi-ligament injury of the knee, the anatomical reconstruction of the PLC using auto-semitendinosus, gracilis tendon, or allogeneic tendon can obtain good short-term effectiveness.