ObjectiveTo systematically review the association between 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) and risk of sexual dysfunction in subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsPubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, EMbase, CNKI, WanFang Data, VIP and CBM databases were electronically searched to collect studies on the association between 5ARIs and risk of sexual dysfunction in subjects with BPH from inception to October 2020. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. Meta-analysis was then performed by using Stata 12.0 software.ResultsA total of 15 studies involving 17 774 subjects were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that compared with the placebo group, 5ARIs could significantly increase risk of erectile dysfunction (RR=1.52, 95%CI 1.36 to 1.69, P<0.000 1), while decrease libido (RR=1.79, 95%CI 1.37 to 2.32, P<0.000 1) and ejaculation disorder (RR=2.97, 95%CI 1.82 to 4.83, P<0.000 1) in subjects with BPH. Subgroup analysis of the type of 5ARIs, intervention period, publication year and sample size showed that the 5ARIs had a higher risk of sexual dysfunction than the placebo group.ConclusionsCurrent evidence shows that 5ARIs can increase risk of erectile dysfunction, decrease libido and ejaculation disorder in subjects with BPH. Due to the limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high-quality studies are needed to verify the above conclusions.