Objective To investigate the apoptosis of photoreceptor cells in experimental model of retinal detachment in mice. Methods Thirty-six adult C57Bl/6J mice were divided into 2 groups: retinal detachment model was set up in the left eyes of 18 mice by subretinal injection with 1.4% sodium hyaluronate in the experimental group, while the left eyes of other 18 mice underwent scleral puncture only as the control. The retinal sections were stained with histochemical and immunofluorescent staining and examined by confocal microscopy 1,3,7 and 28 days after injection. eye enucleated, and retinal sections studied by histochemistry, immunofluorescence labeling, and confocal microscopy. Rods, cones, and apoptotic cells were labeled by antibodies of anti-rod and anti-cone cells, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), respectively. Photoreceptor cell apoptosis and cell loss were assessed quantitatively by counting both surviving and apoptotic rod and cone cells. Results TUNEL-positive cells were only found in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of the detached portion of the retina, which were detected at the 1st day after the detachment. The apoptosis of the cells reached the peak at the 3rd day and decreased sharply after 7 days. Photoreceptor cell loss of both rod and cone cells followed a similar time course after retinal detachment. Conclusion Apoptosis is a major pathological degeneration of photoreceptor cell death after retinal detachment. (Chin J Ocul Fundus Dis, 2006, 22: 124-127)
Objective To lay a foundation for study of optic narve damage in glaucoma by measuring the number and diameter of the optic nerve fibers and optic disc area in normal individuals. Methods The cross-sections of the optic nerve and the optic discs in 15 normal human eyes were examined with the use of a computerized image analysis system. Results The mean nerve fiber count was 10.08times;105plusmn;1.61times;105. The mean nerve fiber diameter was (0.99plusmn;0.04)mu;m. The nerve fiber count increased significantly with the increasing of cross-section area of the optic nerve, but the nerve fiber count was independent of the optic dise area. Conclusion This study provided anatomic basis for predicting the prognosis of optic nerve damage and further studyv of nerve damage in glaucoma. (Chin J Ocul Fundus Dis,1999,15:16-19)
【摘要】目的评价骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSCs)向肝样细胞诱导的可行性。方法2008年1月2009年1月,以肝细胞生长因子(HGF) 20 ng/mL,成纤维细胞生长因子4(FGF4) 10 ng/mL为诱导剂,从细胞形态变化,并通过RTPCR、免疫组化方法分别对诱导第7、14、21及28天的细胞进行白蛋白(ALB)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)、细胞角蛋白18(CK18)等检测。人L02肝细胞及未诱导的BMSCs分别为阳性和阴性对照结果BMSCs诱导7 d出现类圆形或多角形细胞,并出现铺路石样结构;诱导14 d细胞呈现典型的铺路石状;诱导21 d,同前;诱导28 d,细胞排列紊乱,局部细胞的形态不规则、细胞边界不清。BMSCs诱导第7、14、21天ALB、CK18、AFP等mRNA表达阳性;未诱导BMSCs均为阴性;肝细胞ALB、CK18、AFP等mRNA表达均阳性。免疫细胞化学检测结果同RTPCR。结论以HGF及FGF4为主的诱导体系可有效诱导BMSCs向肝样细胞转化,BMSCs可以作为一种新的肝细胞来源。
Objective To evaluate the surgical treatment and effectiveness of rheumatoid forefoot reconstruction with arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and arthroplasty of lesser metatarsal heads. Methods Between January 2007 and August 2009, 7 patients with rheumatoid forefoot were treated by reconstruction with arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and arthroplasty of lesser metatarsal heads. They were all females with an average age of 62 years (range, 56-71 years) and with an average disease duration of 16 years (range, 5-30 years). All patients manifested hallux valgus, hammer toe or mallet toe of 2-5 toes, 5 feet complicated by subluxation of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. The improved American Orthopaedic Foot amp; Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was 36.9 ± 6.4. The hallux valgus angle was (46 ± 5)°, and the intermetarsal angle was (12 ± 2)° by measuring the load bearing X-ray films preoperatively. Results All incisions healed by first intention after operation. The X-ray films showed bone fusion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint at 3-4 months after operation. Seven patients were followed up 2.9 years on average (range, 2-4 years), gait was improved and pain was rel ieved. The hallux valgus angle decreased to (17 ± 4)° and the intermetarsal angle was (11 ± 2)° at 3 months postoperatively, showing significant differences when compared with preoperative values (P lt; 0.05). The improved AOFAS score was 85.3 ± 5.1 at 2 years postoperatively, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=4.501, P=0.001). One patient had recurrent metatarsalgia at 4 years after operation. Conclusion Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and arthroplasty of lesser metatarsal heads for rheumatoid forefoot reconstruction can correct hallux valgus, remodel the bearing surface of the forefoot, and rel ieve pain, so it can be considered as a procedure that provides improvement in the cl inical outcome.
To investigate the pathologic characteristics of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone from osteoarthritic knees, and to compare the structural parameters of articular cartilage and subchondral bone between the medial and lateral tibial plateau, so as to determine the role of calcified zone and subchondral bone in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The tibial plateaus were taken from 30 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty between October 2009 and May 2011. The subjects included 11 males and 19 females with an average age of 65.1 years (range, 55-78years). The mean disease duration was 16.6 years (range, 10-25 years); the mean varus angle of the diseased knee was 9.3° (range, 1-23°). After gross observation, the cartilage-bone samples were taken out from the most weight-bearing regions in the internal areas of the medial and lateral plateaus. The decalcified paraffin-embedded sections were prepared and stained with HE and Safranin O/fast green for cartilage assessment (Mankin score), staging, and bone histomorphometry; the pathologic features of the cartilage and subchondral bone were also observed. The thickness of total articular cartilage (TAC), articular calcified cartilage (ACC), subchondral bone plate (SCP), and the trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) were measured by Image Pro Plus 6.0 imaging system, then the ratio of ACC/TAC was calculated. Results Macroscopic results showed that articular cartilage degeneration was more severe in the medial plateau than in the lateral plateau; Mankin score of the medial plateau (12.4 ± 1.1) was significantly higher than that of the lateral plateau (8.3 ± 1.6) (t=12.173, P=0.000). In the 60 samples, 14 samples were at stage I, characterisd by fissures within the superficial zone, dupl icated tidemark, and thickend subchondral bone; 19 samples were at stage II, characterisd by fissures extending into the deep zone, multiple subchondral bone resorption pits, and obviously thickend subchondral bone; and 27 samples were at stage III, characterisd by full-thickness cartilage defects, endochondral ossification, and eburnated subchondral bone. The bone histomorphometric study showed that TAC thickness of the medial plateau was significantly lower than that of the lateral plateau (P lt; 0.05); the ratios of ACC/TAC, BV/TV, and SCP thickness of the medial plateau were significantly higher than those of the lateral plateau (P lt; 0.05). However, there was no significantdifference in the ACC thickness between the medial and lateral plateaus (P gt; 0.05). Conclusion The calcified zone andsubchondral bone may play an important role in the initiation and progression of OA.
ObjectiveTo summarize the application and research progress of robotic-arm in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).MethodsRelevant literature at home and abroad was extensively reviewed to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of robotic-arm assisted TKA (RATKA).ResultsAccurate reconstruction of lower extremity alignment and rotation alignment, accurate osteotomy and implant prosthesis in TKA are very important to improve the effectiveness and prolong the life of the prosthesis. Traditional TKA deviations occur in key links such as osteotomy due to operator’s operation. RATKA solves the above problems to a certain extent and can assist accurate osteotomy and implant prosthesis, and protect the soft tissues around the knee joint. Patients’ satisfaction after RATKA is high, and the operator’s learning curve is shorter, which improves the efficiency of the operation. But it also has disadvantages such as prolonged operation time, increased complications and medical costs.ConclusionPreliminary clinical application studies have shown that RATKA has satisfactory effectiveness, but its definite advantages compared with traditional TKA need to be confirmed by a large number of randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up.
ObjectiveTo investigate the improvement of femoral rotation alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by robotic-arm assisted positioning and osteotomy and its short-term effectiveness.MethodsBetween June 2020 and November 2020, 60 patients (60 knees) with advanced osteoarthritis of the knee, who met the selection criteria, were selected as the study subjects. Patients were randomly divided into two groups according to the random number table method, with 30 patients in each group. Patients were treated with robotic-arm assisted TKA (RATKA) in trial group, and with conventional TKA in control group. There was no significant difference in gender, age, side and course of osteoarthritis, body mass index, and the preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA), medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), posterior condylar angle (PCA), knee society score-knee (KSS-K) and KSS-function (KSS-F) scores between the two groups (P>0.05). The clinical (KSS-K, KSS-F scores) and imaging (HKA, LDFA, MPTA, PCA) evaluation indexes of the knee joints were compared between the two groups at 3 months after operation.ResultsAll patients were successfully operated. The incisions in the two groups healed by first intention, with no complications related to the operation. Patients in the two groups were followed up 3-6 months, with an average of 3.9 months. KSS-K and KSS-F scores of the two groups at 3 months after operation were significantly higher than those before operation (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). X-ray re-examination showed that the prosthesis was in good position, and no prosthesis loosening or sinking occurred. HKA, MPTA, and PCA significantly improved in both groups at 3 months after operation (P<0.05) except LDFA. There was no significant difference in HKA, LDFA, and MPTA between the two groups (P>0.05). PCA in trial group was significantly smaller than that in control group (t=2.635, P=0.010).ConclusionRATKA can not only correct knee deformity, relieve pain, improve the quality of life, but also achieve the goal of restoring accurate femoral rotation alignment. There was no adverse event after short-term follow-up and the effectiveness was satisfactory.
目的 探讨T3期喉癌采用支撑喉镜下CO2激光切除术和部分喉切除术两种手术治疗方式的临床治疗效果。 方法 将2003年8月－2010年7月收治的31例患者按所接受手术方式分为A、B两组（非随机分组），A组16例中男15例，女1例，年龄38～72岁，中位年龄51岁；B组15例，均为男性，年龄46～68岁，中位年龄58岁。病变均累及前联合，A组10例和B组11例累及对侧声带约1/3。A组选择支撑喉镜下CO2激光切除术，B组选择气管切开＋部分喉切除术。两组患者首次术后均未接受放射（放疗）或化学治疗（化疗）。术后第1、3、6、12、24个月门诊纤维喉镜复查。随访时间14～78个月。 结果 A组5例复发或颈部淋巴结转移，复发率31.3%；5例患者均行再次手术、颈清扫及放、化疗。B组4例复发，复发率26.7%；4例均行全喉切除双侧选择性颈清扫术，其中3例术后辅以放、化疗。两组复发率比较差异无统计学意义（P＞0.05）。 结论 采用支撑喉镜下CO2激光切除治疗T3期喉癌，有望得到类似部分喉切除的临床治疗效果。
Objective To establ ish a porcine model of articular full-thickness cartilage defect characterized byremaining cartilage calcified zone on femoral trochlea, so as to provide a considerable and comparative control group forinvestigating repair effects of tissue engineered scaffolds in articular cartilage defects with cartilage calcified zone remaining.Methods The full-thickness cartilage column defects (6 mm in diameter, 0.2-0.5 mm in depth) without damage on calcifiedcartilage zone were made on the femoral trochlea in 9 clean-grade 6-month-old Guizhou mini pigs by standard cartilage-defectmakingsuites. Microscopical observation was performed after modeling. Scanning were made by 3.0T MRI at 4 weeks. Thengeneral observation, stereomicroscope, and histological staining were used to observe cartilage repair. Results All animals wereal ive. No infection of incisions or patellar dislocations occurred; they were able to walk with partial weight-bearing immediatelyafter surgery and could move freely without limp at 1 week. Obvious signal discontinuity in trochlea and subchondral bone couldbe observed in MRI, without deep signal change in defects surrounding. Microscopical observation showed a few repair tissueand petechia at base of the defect with clear boundary. Nearly intact calcified zone of cartilage and zonal collapse of subchondralbone in defects could be observed with stereomicroscope. Under common microscope, no chondrocytes was found in defects,as well as negative staining of fast green-safranin O and alcian blue. Under polarized microscope, the bottom of defects werefilled with a l ittle of fibrous tissue presenting continuous and b l ight-refraction by sirius red staining. Conclusion Theanimal model of articular full-thickness cartilage defect on femoral trochlea by standard cartilage-defect-making suites can beapplied for the research of cartilage disease in early human osteoarthritis and function of calcified cartilage zone in pig.
To explore the shape and structure of calcified cartilage zone and its interface between the non-calcified articular cartilage and subchondral bone plate. Methods The normal human condyles of femur (n=20) were obtained from the tissue bank donated by the residents, 10 males and 10 females, aged 17-45 years. The longitudinal and transverse paraffin sections were prepared by the routine method. The shape and structure of calcified cartilage zone were observed with theSafranin O/fast green and von kossa stain method. The interface conjunction among zones of cartilage was researched by SEM and the 3D structural model was establ ished by serial sections and model ing technique. Results Articular bone-cartilage safranin O/fast green staining showed that cartilage was stained red and subchondral bone was stained blue. The calcified cartilage zone was located between the tidemark and cement l ine. Von kossa staining showed that calcified cartilage zone was stained black and sharpness of structure border. Upper interface gomphosised tightly with the non-calcified cartilage by the wave shaped tidemark and lower interface anchored tightly with the subchondral bone by the uneven comb shaped cement l ine. The noncalcified cartilage zone was interlocked tightly in the manner of “ravine-engomphosis” by the calcified cartilage zone as observed under SEM, and the subchondral bone was anchored tightly in the manner of “comb-anchor” by the in the calcified cartilage zone 3D reconstruction model. Conclusion The calcified cartilage zone is an important structure in the articular cartilage. The articular cartilage is fixed firmly into subchondral bone plate by the distinctive conjunct interfaces of calcified cartilage zone.