Objective To analyze morbility，risk factors，etiology，treatment and outcome of nosocomial pulmonary fungal infections in respiratory intensive care unit（RICU）.Methods Forty-seven respiratory RICU patients with nosocomial pulmonary fungal infections between July 2000 and June 2005 were retrospectively analyzed.Results All of the 47 cases were clinically diagnosed as probable nosocomial pulmonary fungal infections，with the morbidity of 10.8% significantly higher than general wards（1.8%，Plt;0.005）.COPD and bacterial pneumonia were the major underlying diseases of respiratory system with a percent of 38.30% and 36.17%，respectively.Forty-one patients (87.2%) had risk factors for fungal infections.Compared with general wards，the proportion of Aspergillosis was higher in RICU without significant difference (Pgt;0.1)；the proportions of Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis were higher too，but that of Candida krusei was relatively low.The effective rate of antifungal treatment was 79.1% and fluconazol was the most common used antifungal agents.The mortality of fungal infection in RICU was higher than that of general wards but without significant difference（Pgt;0.1）.Conclusion The morbidity of nosocomial pulmonary fungal infection in respiratory RICU is higher than that in general wards.The proportions of infection caused by Aspergilli and some Candida resistant to fluconazol is relatively high.Early and effective treatment is needed in these patients considering the poor prognosis.
ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of the inguinal approach versus classical pubic approach for obturator nerve block (ONB) in transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TUR-BT).MethodsDatabases including PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMbase, Web of Science, WanFang Data, CNKI and VIP databases were electronically searched to identify randomized controlled trials using ONB in TUR-BT from inception to May 2020. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed risk bias of included studies. Meta-analysis was performed by using Stata 14.2 software.ResultsA total of 7 studies involving 474 patients were included. The meta-analysis results showed that there was no significant difference between inguinal approach and pubic approach in terms of the ONB success rate (RR=1.06, 95%CI 0.96 to 1.17, P=0.23), while the one-time success rate of puncture of inguinal approach was higher than that of pubic approach (RR=1.47, 95%CI 1.01 to 2.15, P=0.04). Compared with the pubic approach, the overall complications of inguinal approach were lower (RR=0.24, 95%CI 0.08 to 0.71, P=0.01). However, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of subcutaneous hematoma (RR=0.46, 95%CI 0.08 to 2.66, P=0.38).ConclusionsThe current evidence indicates that the success rate of one puncture of inguinal approach is higher than that of pubic approach, and the overall complications of the inguinal approach are much lower than that of the pubic approach. However, the above conclusions are still required to be verified through more high-quality studies due to the limited quantity and quality of included studies.