Objective To compare the 2009 edition national essential medicine list (part of basic medicine and heath institution ) in China and WHO model list of essential medicines for children update in 2010, so as to provide the evidence for model list of essential medicines for children of China. Methods We compared the diference in composition of content, the categories, speciic drugs, formulation, and introduction and sign of list by descriptive analysis. Results (1) WHO model list of essential medicines for children were comprised with core and complimentary lists, which were not in the 2009 edition national essential medicine list of China; (2) The 2009 edition essential medicine lists of China included 20 categories in WHO model list of essential medicines for children ,while lacked of antineoplastic agents, blood products, disinfectants, peritoneal dialysis luid and speciic medicines for neonatal care; (3) he average conincidence rate with WHO model list of essential medicines for children of the same drugs was 52.61%. here were 15 categories in the interval of 20%-80%, which accounted for 75%. he average conincidence rate with 2009 edition national essential medicine list of China was 44.19%. here were 11 categories in the interval of 20%-50%,which accounted for 55%. the same drugs of regulate water, electrolyte and acid-base balance in the two list accounted for more than 80% of WHO model list of essential medicines for children. Drugs of ear, nose and throat were totally diferent. (4) he 2009 edition essential medicine list of China didn’t have speciication and sign of drug for children, age limitation, instruction of list, suitable drug formulations for children such as suspension, syrup, drops, granules, scored tablets, etc. Conclusion 2009 edition national essential medicine list of China can’t meet the demand of children. WHO model list of essential medicines for children which bases on global burden of disease, can not be copied into China. We suggest to reference fromWHO model list of essential medicines for children to carry out selecting essential medicines for children in China, formulating essential medicine list for children in China which bases on burden of children disease and clinical demand in China to improve rationality of drugs in children.
ObjectiveTo systematically review the medication adherence in children with tic disorder to assist in the selection of clinical treatment options and enhance the efficacy of medications for tic disorder.MethodsDatabases including Medline (Ovid), EMbase (Ovid), The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO (EBSCOhost), CINAHL Plus (EBSCOhost), CNKI, WanFang Data and VIP were searched from inception to August 2020, and original studies on medication adherence in children with tic disorder were included. Two researchers independently screened literature, extracted data on the definition of compliance, compliance rate, and factors affecting compliance, and evaluated risk bias of included studies. Systematic review was performed to analyze the status of medication adherence in children with tic disorder.ResultsA total of 12 studies were included, involving seven randomized controlled trials, two case series studies, and three cross-sectional studies. Most studies failed to specify the definition of compliance. The results of cross-sectional studies showed that the proportion of children with good medication compliance was 29.3% to 47.1%. The first-line treatment drugs, tiapride, risperidone, aripiprazole, and clonidine, had relatively good adherence. Medication adherence was affected by drug factors, patient and family factors, and environmental factors.ConclusionsThe adherence rate of medications for tic disorder varies between studies. Few studies have analyzed the factors that affect medication adherence for tic disorder, and some influencing factors are controversial. The first-line treatment drugs, tiapride, risperidone, aripiprazole, and clonidine, have high medication adherence and are recommended for clinical use.
Objective To provide evidence for the definition, current development and prospect of Evidence-based pharmacy through systematically assessing the extant literatures. Methods We searched CBM, VIP, CNKI, PubMed, EMbase, and Google for supplement. We extracted definitions of evidence-based pharmacy, types of studies, published year, topics of studies, and the author information from the included studies. We compared the definitions on different domains, and assessed the current development of evidence-based pharmacy literature. Results a) The definition of evidence-based pharmacy: We found 4 definitions, and there were great differences among them on the people who practiced evidence-based pharmacy as well as the methods and areas of the practice. b) The evidence-based pharmacy literature: 12 English and 202 Chinese articles were included in the review. The number of Chinese evidence-based pharmacy articles was increasing annually, especially in recent 3 years; Most of their authors were from hospitals, especially from pharmacy department; Their study orientations mostly involved clinical pharmacy and hospital pharmacy; The topics mainly refered to the practice and development of clinical pharmacy, rational drug use, and development of hospital pharmacy. Conclusion a) There is yet no consensus on the definition of evidence-based pharmacy. b) Few researchers worldwide know or show interest in evidence-based pharmacy, while, so far, more and more researchers are getting to know evidence-based pharmacy in China. c) Further efforts should be made to develop the theoretical system of evidence-based pharmacy and the pattern of its practice.
Objective To assess the global situation of off-label drug use in outpatient children.Methods A search was conducted in PubMed, EMbase, CBM, CNKI and VIP for collecting studies on off-label drug use in outpatient children aged 0 to 18 years, and the publication language was limited to English and Chinese. The quality assessment was based on Crombie Criteria for cross-sectional studies, and the descriptive analysis was performed to analyze the incidence of off-label drug use at all levels of medical institutes and different age groups, the common types of off-label used drugs, and the constitution ratio of off-label use drugs. Results A total of 20 cross-sectional studies were included, involving 1 933 760 children and 5 262 573 prescriptions. The results of descriptive analysis showed: a) The incidence of off-label drug use in outpatient children in primary care and tertiary care institutes were 19.5% (IQR 13.5%, 24.5%) and 26.0% (IQR 24.0%, 35.0%), respectively; b) The primary studies reported that neonate, infant and adolescent had the highest incidence of off-label drug use, while the other children had the lowest incidence; c) Drugs for respiratory system, anti-infection, sensory organs, and dermatosis were listed as the top 5 frequently used off-label drugs by more than half of the studies; d) The studies with issue of “lack of instruction for children” showed it was exactly the type with highest incidence of off-label use, while other studies without that issue showed the highest incidence was over aged off-label use. Conclusion a) Off-label drug use is common in outpatient children. The incidence of off-label drug use may be higher in tertiary care institutes than primary care institutes, and it is higher in neonate, infant and adolescent rather than other age groups of children; b) Incidence of off-label use may be higher in inpatient children than outpatient ones; c) Drugs for respiratory system, anti-infection, sensory organs, and dermatosis were most common types of off-label use; and d) Off-label use due to both “lack of instruction for children” and “over aged use” is more common. So it suggests that further studies trials should focus on fields in which clinical trials of drugs are totally absent.
Objective To compare the newest essential medicine lists (EMLs) of China and the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2009, so as to provide the evidence for the selection, adjustment and implementation of the newest national EML of China. Methods Differences in the procedures of selection, implementation and the categories as well as the number of medicines in 2009 EMLs of the WHO and China were compared by descriptive analysis. Result Principles and procedures of selecting and updating EML of China were based on those of the WHO EML. However, the transparency of procedures, methods of selection, and evidence of efficacy, safety, cost-effectiveness and suitability were not enough. Essential medicines of the WHO were categorized by the Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical (ATC) classification system, while those of China were classified by clinical pharmacology. Twenty-one identical categories of the first class were found in the two lists. There were 8 and 3 unique categories in the WHO EML and China EML, respectively. A total of 358 and 255 medicines (including medicines in its explanation) were included in the EMLs of the WHO and China, respectively, with 133 identical medicines as well as 206 and 108 unique medicines. There were 51 antiinfective medicines in China EML, accounting for half of the WHO EML. Forty medicines were the same in both lists, and 11 and 60 anti-infective medicines were unique in EMLs of China and the WHO, except for 40 identical medicines. Among them, 22 and 31 antibacterials were included in the lists of the WHO and China with 17 identical medicines. Antifungal, antituberculosis and antiviral medicines in China EML were fewer than those in the WHO EML. The numbers of the identical medicines acting on the respiratory, digestive, and nervous systems and hormones in the both lists were 1, 7, 9, and 17, respectively, while the unique ones in China EML were 6, 12, 7, and 14, respectively. However, most of them were selected without adequate evidence in efficacy and safety. The medicines acting on cardiovascular system were 19 and 29 in both lists with 14 identical medicines. Some antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic medicines were included in China EML with similar mechanism, whereas some of them were excluded by the EML. Conclusion The total numbers of both EMLs are close to each other with half of the identical medicines. The selection of China EML mostly meets the needs of disease burden in China. However, the transparency of selection and evidence are not enough. We suggest that health authorities should cooperate with other stakeholders to promote the transparency of selection, to enhance the capacity of producing high-quality evidence, to develop related technical documents and guidelines, and to disseminate and monitor the implementation of EML.
Objective To study the medication usage in children with crush syndrome in Wenchuan Earthquake. Methods The information of the medications of 7 children with crush syndrome in West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University was collected by medical history. The cases and times of medication, the total number of drugs, the drug cost per capita and the drug cost per day were calculated by Excel. Results A total of 113 drugs in 19 categories were appl ied to 7 children with crush syndrome. Most children used Vitamins and antibacterial agents. The cost of gamma globul in injection was the highest. Conclusions The rational ity valuation for children medication lacks international vulgate index and needs more basic research.
Objective To systematically review the diseases constitution of children in Chinese medical institutions from 2010 to 2016, and to provide evidence for establishing essential medicine list for children (EMLc) of China. Methods We searched PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP and WanFang Data from January 2010 to February 2016 to collect studies about diseases constitution of Chinese children. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the risk bias of included studies, then data was descriptively analyzed. Results A total of 33 studies of diseases constitution were included, involving 1 797 696 children among 0 to 18 years from 17 provinces of China. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, neonatal pneumonia and premature were the main diseases of inpatient newborns. The main diseases of children hospitalized were pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infection and tumor. Upper respiratory tract infection, bronchopneumonia, bronchitis and diarrhea were the main diseases of outpatients. Hyperspasmia, upper respiratory tract infection and pneumonia were the main diseases of emergency patients. Diseases constitution of different medical institution: the main diseases were pathological jaundice, neonatal asphyxia and neonatal pneumonia in both tertiary and secondary medical institution in the newborn group. In the children group, the main diseases were pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infection and bronchitis in both tertiary and secondary medical institution. Besides these diseases, indigestion and fever of unknown origin were also the main diseases of primary medical institution. Disease constitution of different areas: in the newborn group, pathological jaundice, neonatal pneumonia and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were the main diseases in coastal areas. Neonatal pneumonia, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and premature were the main diseases in inland areas. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, neonatal pneumonia and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were the main diseases in remote areas. In children group, pneumonia, bronchitis and premature were the main diseases in coastal areas. Pneumonia, bronchitis and hand-foot-and-mouth disease were the main diseases in inland areas. Upper respiratory tract infection, bronchopneumonia and bronchitis were the main diseases in remote areas. Conclusion Diseases constitutions of children vary in different medical institution, and because of extreme lack of date from primary medical institution, we suggest to carry out investigation in primary medical institution to provide evidence for EMLc. Diseases constitutions of children vary in different area, additions should be made according to local conditions when essential drugs of children selected. Newborn, as a special group of children, should be considered separately when EMLc of China established.
ObjectivesTo evaluate the level and variation of Chinese scholars' scientific research capability in the world by analysing the status of literature published on top-five global biomedicine journals by Chinese scholars in the past 10 years.MethodsLiterature published on NEJM, JAMA, BMJ, Lancet and PLoS Medicine from 2007 to 2016 were searched in PubMed database. Types of diseases were classified by using International Classification of Diseases (version 10) (ICD-10). Quantitatively analysis were used to classify the different authors, institutes, studies designs, quality of publication and variation.ResultsLiterature (56.4%) published on Lancet had the largest quantity among the top-five journals. Infectious and parasitic diseases, circulation system diseases, cancers, endocrine, nutrition and metabolic diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases were the top-five in disease categories list, accounting for 38.4%. In different study design, reviews (non-experimental research) and randomized controlled trials were the first and the second study types, separately.ConclusionsFor productivity of Chinese scholars’ diseases publications on top-five medical journals, the top-five specific diseases are from the top-five disease categories-infectious and parasitic diseases, circulation system diseases, cancer, endocrine, nutrition and metabolic diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. The main study types are reviews, randomized controlled trials and cross-sectional studies.
ObjectiveThis study aims to compare different references for the fetal risk of drugs used in pregnancy to provide evidence for the safety of drug use in pregnancy.MethodsFour drug databases, including Lexicomp, Micromedex, TERIS, and Reprotox, as well as two books of drugs in pregnancy edited by Briggs and Schaefer, were searched. Descriptive analysis was performed regarding the definition of pregnancy recommendations and the specific content of medication.ResultsThe six references employed slightly different approaches to drugs in pregnancy, however, all of them included summaries of the risk in pregnancy, data of crossing the placenta, and human and animal data. The databases of Micromedex, TERIS, and a book edited by Briggs had their risk classification systems for drug use during pregnancy. For specific drugs, the summary of different information in pregnancy was different, the amount and content of listed evidence varied, and there was no evaluation of the quality and relevance of evidence among the references.ConclusionsThere is no consensus on the risk assessment of drugs in pregnancy. Risk classification systems for drugs in pregnancy are still an important method for determining the fetal risk of drugs. The existing references merely list studies of drugs in pregnancy, without comprehensive quality assessment. A methodological study of assessment of the risk of drugs in pregnancy is required.
Objective To analyze drug use for 23 sick and wounded hospitalized in the departments of gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics in the West China Second University Hospital, during one month after Lushan earthquake, so as to provide references for the drug use for the sick and wounded women and children. Methods Medication information was retrospectively investigated in the departments of gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics in the West China Second University Hospital during one month after Lushan earthquake. We extracted data including hospitalization duration, medication prescriptions, types and costs of essential medicines, types and costs of antibiotic medicines using the HIS system. Discharge diagnosis was standardized and classified according to ICD-10. Indicators of rational drug use included defined daily dose (DDD), defined daily dose statistic (DDDs), drug utilization index (DUI), children defined daily dose (cDDD), children drug utilization index (cDUI), proportion of essential medicines, proportion of antibiotic medicines, mismatch of medicine and diagnosis, repeated drug use, improper combination of drug, incorrect usage and dosage, and frequently drug change. Medication information was evaluated and discussed by the prescription working group. Discrepency was resolved by consulting with the panel. Results A total of 23 sick and wounded women and children were assessed during one month after Lushan Earthquake. There were 13 sick and wounded children in the department of pediatrics (mainly manifested as bronchial pneumonia) and 10 sick and wounded women in the department of gynaecology and obstetrics (mainly involved in cesarean delivery). Proportions of essential medicines were 13/13 in the department of pediatrics and 9/10 in the department of gynaecology and obstetrics. Proportions of antibiotic medicines were 10/13 in the department of pediatrics and 8/10 in the department of gynaecology and obstetrics. Irrational drug use was mainly caused by improper use of antibiotics. Conclusion The drug use for 23 hospitalized sick and wounded is rational in the departments of gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics in the West China Second University Hospital during one month after Lushan earthquake. Evaluation methods of rational drug use in high-risk population are urgently needed. Using cDDD and cDUI is an active exploration for the evaluation of pediatric drug use, which needs more practice to test and improve.