Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of Dan Hong injection for patients with angina pectoris compared with compound salvia injection as the control group. Methods Databases were electronically searched from MEDLINE, EMbase, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data (January, 2007 to July, 2010), and reference lists of all papers identified were also checked. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the effect of Dan Hong injection on angina pectoris were identified and assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and then RevMan 4.3 was used to undertake Meta analysis. Results Twenty-seven trials involving 3 030 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that: a) Compared with compound salvia injection, Dan Hong injection was capable of significantly decreasing the angina incidence (OR=3.84, 95% CI 3.03 to 4.88, Plt;0.000 01); b) Dan Hong injection was capable of significantly improving ECG review effectiveness compared with compound salvia injection (OR=1.98, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.66, Plt;0.000 01); c) Dan Hong injection was obviously superior to compound salvia injection in improving the NST (WMD= 0.78, 95%CI 0.42 to 1.14, Plt;0.000 1) and ∑ST (WMD= 0.45, 95%CI 0.32 to 0.57, Plt;0.000 01); and d) Dan Hong injection was able to obviously improve the hemorheology index after angina pectoris; Meta-analyses of eight trials in which adverse events were reported showed that no significant difference was found between Dan Hong injection and salvia injection (OR=0.64, 95%CI 0.33 to 1.25, P=0.19). Conclusion Dan Hong injection can effectively improve the ST segment ischemia and hemorheology index after angina pectoris, significantly increase the effectiveness of electrocardiogram reviews and eventually significantly reduce the recurrence rate of angina, and appears to be much safer. Further high quality RCTs are required to provide reliable evidence on the treatment of patients with angina pectoris.
Objective To evaluate the cardiac protection function of high thoracic epidural anesthesia (HTEA) for patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure. Methods A literature search was conducted with computerized database on PubMed, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, and CNKI from 1990 to May 2010. Further searches for articles were conducted by checking all references describing cardiac protection studies with HTEA. All included articles were assessed and data were extracted according to the standard of Cochrane review. The homogeneous studies were pooled using RevMan 4.2.10 software. Results A total of 28 articles involving 1 041 patients were included. The results of meta-analyses showed that, a) cardiac function: HTEA could significantly improve ejection fraction of left ventricle (WMD= – 10.28, 95%CI – 14.14 to – 6.43) and cardiac output (WMD= – 1.26, 95%CI – 1.63 to – 0.89), contract left ventricular diastolic dimension (WMD= 5.02, 95%CI 3.72 to 6.32), increase E peak (WMD= – 17.50, 95%CI – 29.40 to – 5.59) and decrease A peak (WMD= 27.36, 95%CI 24.46 to 30.26); b) ischemic degree for patients with heart failure: the change of NST-T (WMD= 1.45, 95%CI 1.12 to 1.78) and ∑ST-T (WMD= 1.02, 95%CI 0.78 to 1.26) got significantly decreased after HTEA; c) ischemic degree for patients with acute coronary syndrome: HTEA could obviously lessen the times (WMD= 4.24, 95%CI 0.48 to 8.00) and duration (WMD= 23.29, 95%CI 4.66 to 42.11) of myocardial ischemia, decrease the times of heart attack (WMD= 3.44, 95%CI 0.92 to 5.97), and decrease the change of NST-T (WMD= 1.10, 95%CI 0.84 to 1.36) and ∑ST-T (WMD= 1.33, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.65); d) hemodynamic change for patients with acute coronary syndrome: HTEA could obviously decrease heart beat (WMD= 8.44, 95%CI 3.81 to 13.07) and systolic arterial pressure (WMD= 2.07, 95%CI 0.81 to 3.34), but not decrease the diastolic blood pressure (WMD= 2.06, 95%CI – 0.52 to 4.64) so as to avoid influencing the infusion of coronary artery; and e) influence on Q-T interval dispersion: HTEA could significantly decrease Q-Td (WMD= 9.51, 95%CI 4.74 to 14.27), Q-Tcd (WMD= 11.82, 95%CI 5.55 to 18.09), and J-Td (WMD= 9.04, 95%CI 2.30 to 15.79). Conclusions High thoracic epidural anesthesia can obviously improve the systolic and diastolic function of left ventricle, decrease the heart beat and stabilize hemodynamic change, lessen the times and duration for myocardial ischemia, reserve the ST segment change, contract Q-T interval dispersion, which has to be further proved with more high quality studies.
Objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of tongxinluo capsule for coronary heart disease. Methods Both the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of tongxinluo capsule for coronary heart disease were collected through searching on computer from the following databases, The Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2010), PubMed (2000 to April 2010), WanFang Data (1996 to April 2010), CNKI (1994 to April 2010) and VIP (1989 to April 2010). The trials selection based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, data extraction, cross check and quality assessment were conducted by two reviewers independently, and meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.0 software. Results A total of 13 studies involving 1 496 participants were included. The results of meta-analyses showed that: compared with the nitrate esters group, the tongxinluo capsule group had a better curative effect on the coronary heart disease than isosorbide dinitrate (RR=0.50, 95%CI 0.36 to 0.70) and isosorbide mononitrate (RR=0.19, 95%CI 0.12 to 0.30); there was significant difference in the total curative effect between the two groups (RR=0.34, 95%CI 0.26 to 0.44, Plt;0.000 01); the tongxinluo capsule was also better in improving the ECG than isosorbide dinitrate (RR=0.55, 95%CI 0.46 to 0.66) and isosorbide mononitrate (RR=0.58, 95%CI 0.48 to 0.70); there was significant difference in the total ECG improvement between the two groups (RR=0.56, 95%CI 0.49 to 0.64, Plt;0.000 01); the tongxinluo capsule group had a lower incidence rate of adverse reaction than the nitrate esters group with a significant difference (RR=0.33, 95%CI 0.20 to 0.53, Plt;0.000 01). Conclusion The present evidence indicates that tongxinluo capsule is not inferior to isosorbide dinitrate or isosorbide mononitrate in improving the curative effect and ECG, and it has fewer adverse reactions. More well-designed and large scale multi-centered RCTs are required with longer follow-up time to confirm this conclusion.
Objective Danshen dripping pill (DSP) and tongxinluo capsule (TXL) are popular Chinese medicinal products and often compared with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in treating angina pectoris. Hundreds of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about DSP and TXL have been published; however, there has been no systematic review on comparing DSP with TXL. This study aims to provide a comprehensive PRISMA-compliant systematic review with sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis to valuate indirectly the efficacies of DSP and TXL in treating angina pectoris. Methods RCTs published between 1994 and 2009 on DSP and TXL in treating angina pectoris for four or more weeks were retrieved from databases. The qualities of RCTs included were evaluated with Jadad scale. Meta-analysis was performed on overall effects of symptomatic and electrocardiographic (ECG) improvements. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were used to measure the effect size. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis and meta-regression were conducted on basic characteristics of RCTs. Results 65 RCTs with 6 969 participants were included. Average Jadad score was 2.11. Overall ORs were 3.66 (95%CI 2.67 to 5.02) for TXL versus ISDN and 2.38 (95%CI 1.90 to 2.99) for DSP versus ISDN. There was a significant difference (W=521.5, P=0.049 45) in ORs between DSP and TXL. Statistical analyses found no significant factors affecting overall efficacies of TXL and DSP. The rates of adverse events under DSP and TXL treatments were 2.37% and 2.11%, respectively. Conclusion DSP and TXL are more effective than ISDN in treating angina pectoris. TXL might be more effective than DSP. However, further RCTs of larger scale, multi-centre/country, longer follow-up periods and higher quality are still required to verify.
Objective To investigate the current situation of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on compound salvia pellet (CSP) for angina pectoris and assess whether there is adequate evidence for clinical practice. Methods We collected all the published clinical studies on CSP for angina pectoris from 1994 to December 2005, and assessed each included report using the Jadad scale, the revised CONSORT statement and other self-edited items. Results We finally identified 115 RCTs. Among which, 1 scored 3 points, 6 scored 2 points, 106 scored 1 points and 2 socred 0 points. No RCT performed allocation concealment according to the CONSORT criteria, only 4 RCTs (3.5%) described the generation of the randomization sequence, among which 2 were quasi-randomized. No RCT provided randomization implementation,1 RCT (0.9%) carried out placebo control, 1 RCT (0.9%) reported endpoint, 9 RCTs (7.8%) adopted single blinding, 4 RCTs (3.5%) reported double blinding, 11 RCTs (9.6%) calculated statistical values, 2 RCTs (1.7%) provided the record of follow-up, 1 RCT (0.9%) reported negative outcome, 25 RCTs (21.8%) described adverse events, no RCT described how the sample size was estimated, and how an intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis and correlation analysis were reported, 1 RCT (0.9%) was multi-center, no RCT completed ethical approval and informed consent, 27 RCTs (23.5%) described syndrome type of TCM. Conclusion Currently, the methodology and reporting of studies on CSP for angina pectoris are not good enough to provide reliable evidence for clinical practice.
Objective To assess the effect of Dengzhanhua Injection for angina pectoris. Methods We performed an electronic search for MEDLINE (1966 to 2004), EMBASE (1974 to 2004), The Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2004), CBM and CNKI (1980 to 2004). We included randomized controlled trials that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and evaluated the quality of those trials and performed the meta-analysis by RevMan 4.2.7. Results Eight trials were included involving 634 patients. However, they were of poor quality. The results of meta-analysis indicated that there were statistical difference on symptoms and electrocardiogram (ECG) improvements between Dengzhanhua and control group (Breviscarpine≥30 mg) with RR 1.26, 95%CI 1.11 to 1.44 and RR 1.30, 95%CI 1.14 to 1.49, respectively. However, Dengzhanhua Injection (Breviscarpinelt;30 mg) vs. basic therapy showed no statistical difference in either symptom improvement (RR 1.03, 95%CI was 0.90 to 1.18) or ECG improvement (RR 1.01, 95%CI 0.86 to 1.20). In addition, Dengzhanhua decreased the myocardial infarction attacks in one year following up (OR 0.06, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.29). Conclusions Little evidence shows that Dengzhanhua is superior to simple basic therapy in the symptoms and ECG improvements as an auxiliary drug. However, this systematic review can not draw a conclusion about the effectiveness of Dengzhanhua Injection compared to simple basic therapy in the treatment of angina pectoris due to the poor quantity of included trials.
Objective To investigate the current situation of clinical studies on puerarin for angina pectoris and assess whether it is adequate to provide evidence for clinical practiice. Methods We collected all the published clinical studies on puerarin for angina pectoris from 1966 to October 2003, and assessed all the included reports according to international clinical epidemiological standard. Results 106 RCTs, 8 non-randomized controlled studies and 24 case series were included and analyzed. 126 studies reported diagnosis criteria, 10 desccribed inclusion criteria; 3 studies were quasi-random, 1 double blind, 4 single blind; no study reported follow-up; 117 studies reported adverse effects. Conclusions Currently the quality of studies on puerarin for angina pectoris is not good enough to provide reliable evidence for clinical practice.
ObjectiveTo compare the risk factors of angina pectoris and atherosclerotic thrombotic cerebral infarction, and to study the possible risk factors of angina pectoris complicated with atherosclerotic thrombotic cerebral infarction (XNHB abbr. in Chinese) and provide the basis for the prevention of XNHB. MethodsClinical epidemiological cross-sectional survey methods were used. Information of angina pectoris patients, atherosclerotic thrombotic cerebral infarction patients and XNHB patients were collected. The statistical software SPSS 17.0 was used to analyze the single risk factors, and then logistic regression analysis was used to filter the independent risk factors of XNHB. Results1 002 cases of angina pectoris, 963 cases of atherosclerotic thormbotic cerebral infaction and 982 cases of XNHB were included. There were significant differences among the three diseases in the following index:age (P=0.000 0), gender (P < 0.000 1), resting lifestyle (P=0.000 0), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.000 0), diabetes (P=0.001 9), hypertension (P < 0.000 1), diabetes complicated with hypertension (P < 0.000 1), smoking (P < 0.000 1), alcohol consumption (P < 0.000 1), and the combination of more than 3 risk factors (P=0.000 0). Age (OR=1.690, 95%CI 1.420 to 2.012), hypertension (OR=1.558, 95%CI 1.312 to 1.850), abnormal BMI (OR=1.356, 95%CI 1.158 to 1.587) and resting lifestyle (OR=1.319, 95%CI 1.107 to 1.572) were shown as the independent risk factors of XNHB filtering by logistic multiple regression analysis. ConclusionThe elderly with hypertension, abnormal BMI or live a resting way of life are more likely to have XNHB, so positive control of risk factors should be needed.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine for the treatment of angina pectoris. Methods PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library (Issue 11, 2015), VIP, WanFang Data and CNKI databases were used to evaluate the curative effect and safety of proprietary Chinese medicine in the treatment of angina pectoris. The retrieval time was up to November 2015. Two reviewers screened literatures, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies, and then the GRADE evaluation system was used to assess the quality of evidence. Results A total of 42 systematic reviews/Meta-analysises were included in the study. There were 15 kinds of proprietary Chinese medicines, and the drugs published most were compound composite salvia. AMSTAR evaluation results showed that the quality of all studies were low. The main problems were: ① no consideration was given to the publication of the inclusion criteria (eg, gray literature); ② only the list of articles included in the study literature was not available; ③ all articles did not describe the relevant conflicts of interest. The results of GRADE systems showed that: ① as to the total effective rate: musk pills (RR=3.44, 95%CI 2.99 to 3.96,P=0.08) and suxiaojiuxin Pills (RR=4.25, 95% CI 3.31 to 5.47,P<0.01) were superior to Western medicine, and the level of evidence was very low. ② As to the ECG changes efficiency rate: Puerarin (RR=3.61, 95% CI 2.95 to 4.42,P=0.05), Musk pill (RR=2.48, 95%CI 2.12 to 2.91,P<0.01) and Shuxuening (RR=1.62, 95% CI 1.33 to1.97,P<0.01) were superior to Western medicine, and the evidence level was low. The level of evidence was low for the remaining effective rate of proprietary Chinese medicine; ③ as to the adverse reactions: the musk Baoxin pill (RR=0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.37,P=0.04) was less than Western medicine, and the evidence level was low. Conclusion Although the number of systematic reviews of published proprietary Chinese medicines for angina pectoris is high, but the methodological quality and evidence level are low. There are serious defects in the low quality of the original research literature and the systematic evaluation method. We suggest future studies to improve for two aspects: ① reasonable design to reduce the selective bias, to carry out the required clinical trials to reduce the implementation bias, the implementation of multi-center, the sample size of sufficient randomized controlled clinical trials to reduce the number of patients into the group less resulting in the loss of bias, strict implementation of the standard data collection methods to reduce the occurrence of measurement bias; ② in accordance with the requirements of clinical trials to report to improve the report quality of the literature.
ObjectiveTo systematically review the efficacy and safety of pericarpium trichosanthis injection combined with conventional western medicine for angina pectoris.MethodsDatabases including CBM, CNKI, WanFang Data, VIP, PubMed, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched from inception to February 20th 2017 to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about pericarpium trichosanthis injection combined with conventional western medicine for angina pectoris. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Then, meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software.ResultsA total of 10 RCTs involving 1 004 patients were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that: the effective rate of angina symptoms (RR=1.24, 95%CI 1.15 to 1.33, P<0.000 01) and resting ECG (RR=1.30, 95%CI 1.15 to 1.45, P<0.000 1) in pericarpium trichosanthis injection combined with conventional western medicine group were superior to the conventional western medicine group. And the adverse reaction was rare and could be more tolerated in pericarpium trichosanthis injection combined with conventional western medicine group.ConclusionPericarpium trichosanthis injection combined with conventional western medicine can improve the symptoms of angina pectoris and objective indicator of ECG. However, due to the low quality of included studies and lack of evidence, the above results are needed to be validated by further well-designed multicenter, large scale, double blind RCTs.