This article briefly introduces the management of clinical trials of investigational new drugs, hospital-made preparations, post-marketing drugs and other types of clinical trials. The WHO International Clinical Trial Register Platform (WHO ICTRP), Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR) and Chinese Clinical Trial Registration and Publishing Collaboration (ChiCTRPC) are also described. People conducting trials are advised to apply the basic philosophy of evidence-based medicine in their implementation, which is considered to be one of the guarantees of the validity of clinical trials.
Objective To compare the balance of simple randomization, stratified blocked randomization and minimization. Methods Monte Carlo technique was employed to simulate the treatment allocation of simple randomization, stratified blocked randomization and minimization respectively, then the balance of treatment allocation in each group and the balance for every prognostic factor were compared. Results The simulation demonstrated that minimization provides the best performance to ensure balance in the number of patients between groups and prognostic factors. Balance in prognostic factors achieved with stratified blocked randomization was similar to that achieved with simple randomization. Conclusion Minimization offers the best balance in the number of patients and prognostic factors between groups.
Objective To introduce the use of Central Randomization System in clinical trials. Methods We discussed the application of Central Randomization System in clinical trials from object management, drug management and user management, and made a brief description of minimization method. Results Central Randomization Systems can guarantee the nnplementation of the scheme of randomization, and can be used in clinical trials with minimization. Conclusion Central Randomization Systems are feasible in clinical trials especially in traditional Chinese medicine and open clinical trials.
Controversy exists regarding the ethics of using placebo control groups in clinical trials when effective treatments exist. The debate was fueled by the announcement of the 5th revision of the Declaration of Helsinki (2000). This study reviews the history and scientific background surrounding the controversy and investigates the prevailing attitudes of Hong Kong researchers regarding this issue. The controversy has centered on a few issues. The first involves the methodological superiority of placebo-controlled trials in discerning treatment effects. Secondly, it is unclear if the treatment effects encompass absolute treatment effects (including placebo effects) or are confined to treatment-specific effects (excluding placebo effects). Thirdly, there are worries that subjects in the placebo group could be exposed to higher risk for developing serious adverse events. Fourthly, it is debated whether the standard of best available treatment should be a local one, or an international one. Preliminary research findings suggest that the opinions of the Hong Kong researchers seemed to be divided on the use of placebo control groups in clinical trials when effective treatment exists. Further researcher on the topic is therefore warranted, training and consensus meeting may be necessary to minimize the confusion related to this issue.
ObjectivesTo analyze the metrological characteristics of hypertension-related clinical trials registered on Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), and discuss the characteristics and developmental trends of hypertension clinical trials registration in China.MethodsChiCTR were searched to collect hypertension-related clinical trials from inception to March 25th, 2018. The characteristics of registered trials were analyzed.ResultsA total of 135 registered trials were included, in which the trials from Beijing, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Chongqing and Shanghai accounted for 55.5%. 115 trials were pre-registered. The top three funding sources were from finance (32, 23.7%), self-financing (25, 18.5%) and hospital (20, 14.8%), respectively. Of all 79 randomized controlled trials, 55 were blank/missing in the entry of blinding method.ConclusionsThe number of hypertension-related clinical trials in ChiCTR tends to increase, however there are large regional disparities and incomplete, non-standardiazed information in the registration of clinical trials. The relevant departments should increase the publicity on the registration of clinical trials, raise the awareness of registration, and promote the development and registration of high quality clinical trials.
ObjectivesTo explore the characteristics of Chinese methodological studies on patient compliance in clinical trials so as to provide reference for clinical trial of patient compliance in future.MethodsCNKI, VIP, CBM and WanFang Data databases were electronically searched to collect methodological studies on patient compliance in clinical trials published in Chinese language from January 2000 to December 2018. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and then, qualitative analysis of document characteristics was then performed.ResultsA total of 84 articles were included, in which 68 were studies on Western medicine and 16 were studies on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The results showed that: the quantity of studies on patient compliance increased along with time. However, those in TCM field did not increase. All included studies summarized their strategies to improve patient compliance, however key information for quality evaluation were missing.ConclusionsThere is still a lack of research on how to improve patients’ compliance in clinical trials to ensure the reliability of the results. Existing studies have not systematically and comprehensively explored the influencing factors of patients’ compliance. Clinical trials researchers in China have not focused sufficiently to patients’ compliance and lack the proper methodology to frame studies.