【Abstract】 Objective To investigate the effects of respiratory syncytial virus ( RSV) infection on the dynamic changes of airway hyperresponsiveness ( AHR) in ovalbumin ( OVA) -induced asthma in mice.Methods 60 BALB/c female mice were randomly divided into PBS control group ( A group, n = 6) , OVA group, OVA/RSV group, dexamethasone group ( D group, n =6) . Kinetics of AHR of OVA group mice was carried out on day 21, 25, 29 and 33 ( B1, B2, B3, B4 groups, n =6) , and the same with the OVA /RSV group( C1, C2, C3, C4 groups, n = 6 ) . The mouse asthma model was established by OVA-sensitization of intraperitoneal injection and repeated inhalation of OVA while the mice in OVA/RSV group were treated with combined intranasal inoculation with RSV ( 1. 0 ×106 pfu/mL in 50 μL) . Airway resistance of expiringphase ( RL ) and compliance of throax and lung ( CTL ) with different doses of acetylcholine ( Ach) were measured. Lung tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin ( HE) and periodic acid-Schiff ( PAS) for general morphology. Results Compared with B1 group, RL increased and CTL decreased in C1 group when Ach dose is above 5 g/L ( P lt; 0. 05, respectively) , and the effects prolonged ( 6 d, 10 d after challenge with OVA, respectively) much more than B1 group ( 2 d after challenge with OVA) . Compared with C1 group, RL decreased and CTL increased in D group and the infiltration of inflammatory cells was obviously alleviated in C1 group after treatment with dexamethasone. Conclusions Airway hyperresponsiveness increases obviously in OVA-sensitized and RSV-infected mice. The prolonged increase inRL and decrease in CTL ( 6 d, 10 d, respectively) may imply that RSV infection aggravates airway inflammation. The small airway inflammation may play a critical role in the persistence of airway hyperresponsiveness.
Objective To investigate the effect of a real-time compliance dashboard to help reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia ( VAP) with ventilator bundle. Methods 240 patients who were admitted into the intensive care unit ( ICU) of Shougang Hospital of Peking University and had received mechanical ventilation ( MV) for over 48 hours, between January 2010 and November 2011, were studied prospectively. The patients were divided into two groups by random number table, ie. a dashboard group ( n = 120) with implementation of a real-time compliance dashboard to help reduce VAP with ventilator bundle, and a control group ( n=120) with implementation of usually routine order to help reduce VAP with ventilator bundle. The success rate of ventilator bundle implementation, incidence of VAP, duration of MV, duration within ICU, mortality within 28 days, cost within ICU were compared between two groups. Results Compared with the control group, the success rate of ventilator bundle implementation obviously increased ( 81.6% vs. 52.5%) , incidence of VAP ( 14. 5/1000 days of MV vs. 36.2 /1000 days of MV) , duration of MV [ 5( 4,7) days vs. 8( 6,11) days] , duration within ICU [ 8( 6,12) days vs. 13( 8,16) days] , mortality of 28 days ( 12.6% vs. 28.6% ) , and cost within ICU ( 36,437 vs. 58,942) in the dashboard group obviously reduced ( Plt;0.05) . Conclusions Implementation of a real time compliance dashboard to help reduce VAP with ventilator bundle can obviously improve medical personnel compliance and reduce incidence of VAP, duration of MV, duration within ICU, mortality and cost in ICU than those of routine medical order to help reduce VAP with ventilator bundle.
Objective To evaluate which is better method zymogen or low temperature frozen in removing vascular endothelial cell so as to lay a foundation for creating a kind of brace which is not to be rejected and the same as own blood vessel. Methods Fresh and not damaged umbilical blood vessel was collected from natural labour women, human umbilical blood vessel was remove carefully from normal foetus, then was put into disinfectant at 37℃ for 24 hours. They were divided into 3 groups:normal group(NG),zymogen group(ZG) and low temperature frozen group(LG). ZG: 0.1% collagenⅡ enzyme was addedin umbilical blood vessel and closed the both sides and the vascular endothelialcell was removed in 37℃ water. LG:Umbilical blood vessel was put into liquidnitrogen for 24 hours after frozened step by step, and then it was put into 37℃ water for 30-60 s and the vascular endothelial cells were washed away by normal saline. NG:Umbilical blood vessel was kept into 4℃ Kerb’s liquid. The bacteria were culturedin each group. The samples were stained by HE,elastic fiber and collagen fiberwere observed by light and scanning electron microscope. The difference of compliance was compared. Human leukocyte antigen ABC(HLA-ABC) and HLA-DR were observed by immunohistochemical method and the expression of antigen of umbilical blood vessel was analysed. Results In LG, umbilical vascular endothelial cells were removed completely; artery showed vertical smooth muscle and vein showed elastic membrane. InZG, umbilical vascular endothelial cells were removed completely after 20 minutes;artery showed vertical smooth muscle cells and vein showed lower endothelial layer. The vascular compliance in LG was higher than that in NG, and the latter was also higher than that in ZG,but showing no significant differences (Pgt;0.05). The compliance of umbilical vein was 2-3 times as much asthat of umbilical artery.The expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR in LG andZG were lower than that in NG, showing significant differences (Plt;0.01). Conclusion Low temperature frozen methodand zymogen method(0.1% collagen Ⅱ enzyme for 20 min) can remove vascular endothelial cells of human umbilical blood vessel completely.Low temperature frozenmethod was better than zymogen method.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the properties of compliance and the change of structure of components in anastomosed arteries. METHODS: The arterial pressure and diameter of femoral arteries of dogs were measured in vivo before and after arterial anastomosis in different time intervals to deduce the arterial compliance. The anastomosed arteries were removed and evaluated through light microscopic examination and various staining methods, the relative contents of elastin, collagen and smooth muscles were measured through image analysis system. RESULTS: The compliance of arteries was gradually decreased after anastomosis with peak-time on the 14th day. The content of elastin at different time had no significant difference, while the content of collagen increased gradually, the ratio of them was increased. CONCLUSION: The property of compliance of anastomosed arteries is closely related to the contents of the structural components.
This study was performed on canine femoral veins which were interpositionally implanted into the femoral arteries and the investigation was in terms of zero-stress state, compliance and hemodynamic assessment. The results revealed that the vein grafts had the similar characteristics of compliance with the normal veins. Using Doppler ultrasonography to monitor the blood flow velocity through the vein grafts, the hemodynamic parameters such as pulsatility index (PI) and blood flow volume were evaluated consecutively within one month after the operations .No significant differences were found between these parameters at different time points. It was suggested that autogenous vein graft had an adaptive course when operating in an arterial hemodynamic circumstances and It’s mechanical changes did not bear upon the hemodynamics through the vein graft.
Objective To study the special traits of primiparae’s compliance with labor analgesia, so as to offer individualized analgesia solutions during spontaneous labor. Methods The uniparous primiparae with cephalic presentation between gestational weeks 38 and 40 were divided into two groups based on their educational background (college education or above, and high school education or below), each group with 20 cases. The demographical statistics of the two groups including their State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) grading, PCA results, and delivery situation were recorded and analyzed. Results Differences in age, height, and weight were not statisticallysignificant (Pgt;0.05); differences in T-AI were not statistically significant (Pgt;0.05); differences in S-AI were statistically significant (Plt;0.05); differences in anxiety and numbers of adding anesthetics were not statistically significant (Pgt;0.05); differences in failure to tolerate labor pains and requiring caesarean section were statistically significant (Plt;0.05). Conclusion Primiparae with higher educational degree tend to have higher S-AI grading and perform poorly in compliance with labor analgesia.
Objective To collect and analyze the qualitative studies on patients’ compliance with hypertension management in the community, and to summarize the factors influencing the compliance from the view of patients. Methods Eleven electronic databases and search strategies and words were determined through discussion by experts and the review group. After the selection and critical appraisal of the retrieved studies were performed by two reviewers independently, meta-summary was employed for the results of qualitative studies. Results Five studies were included. The results showed some factors had great impact on the compliance of patients, including patients’ knowledge of hypertension and its treatment, doctor-patient relationship, patients’ financial status, social support, designing of treatment plans, and patients’ individual conditions. Conclusion To improve doctors’ technical competence, building good doctor-patient relationship, strengthening patients’ individualized health education, formulating the proper treatment plan, and making good use of the social support system would promote the compliance with hypertension management in the community.
ObjectiveTo investigate the practice effect of WeChat on the treatment compliance of patients with hyperlipidaemia in general out-patient department. MethodsFrom June 2012 to May 2013, 178 patients with hyperlipidaemia who could use WeChat software were selected. The patients were randomly divided into the control group (87 patients) and experimental group (91 patients). All the patients were treatment with routine nursing intervention. The experimental group was giving nursing intervention based on WeChat. After 180 days, the compliance score and serum lipid level of the patient were tested and analyzed. ResultsThe score in experimental group on the treatment compliance were as follows:diet:6.57±0.78, take medicine:8.64±1.13, exercise:5.11±0.97, and return visit:5.75±0.74; the percentage effective control of lipid level was 93.4%. The score of the control group on the treatment compliance were as follows diet:4.63±1.23, take medicine:6.91±0.73, exercise:3.98±0.54, and return visit:4.86±0.39; the percentage effective control of lipid level was 57.5%. The difference in the results between two groups is significant (P<0.05). ConclusionApplying WeChat software on nursing intervention for patients with hyperlipidaemia may increase the treatment compliance and enhance the control of serum lipid level.
ObjectiveTo improve the hand hygiene compliance in medical staff via quality control circle (QCC) activities. MethodsFrom January to May 2014, QCC activities were actualized throgh selecting the theme, ensuring the plans, confirming the target, investigating the actuality, validating the true reasons, finding out the countermeasure, ensuring the effect. ResultsHand hygiene compliance, accuracy rate handwashing, and awareness rate before the QCC activities was 53.02%, 65.51% , and 45.56%, respectively; while after the activities was 79.91%, 87.39%, 95.44%, respectively; the differences were significant (P<0.001). ConclusionQCC activities may improve hand hygiene compliance in the medical staff; at the same time, it can fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the medical staff , cultivate the spirit of teamwork , and promote quality improvement .
ObjectiveTo compare the investigation results of compliance and accuracy of hand hygiene in medical staff achieved by Hospital Infection Management Department and Department Infection Management Teams, and analyze the reasons for differences of the results and take measures to improve the investigation ability of hand hygiene in hospitals. MethodsWe statistically analyzed the results of compliance and accuracy of hand hygiene from January to December 2013 investigated by the infection management department and 25 infection management teams. Both the hospital and departments used "WHO Standard Observation Form". Single-blind method was used to observe the implementation of hand hygiene in medical staff. ResultsThe hospital infection management department investigation showed that hand hygiene compliance and accuracy were 64.97% and 87.78%, respectively, while the investigation by infection management teams showed that hand hygiene compliance and accuracy were 90.54% and 93.37%, respectively. The differences between the investigation results of two-level organizations were statistically significant (χ2=286.2, P<0.001; χ2=532.6, P<0.001). ConclusionWe should take measures to enforce the training of hand hygiene implementation and the observation method, and improve the guidance and assessment, promote investigators' working responsibility and observation ability, so that the survey data can accurately reflect the actual situation to urge medical staff to form good hand hygiene habits.