Objective To investigate the disease constitution and drug application of inpatients in Yong’an Central Township Health Center (YaC) in Shuangliu County of Sichuan province in 2009, so as to provide baseline data for further research. Method Questionnaire and focus interview were carried out, case records and drug application information of YaC inpatients in 2009 were collected. The diseases were classified according to ICD-10 based on first diagnose. Drug application was analyzed based on pharmaceutical dosage form, pharmaceutical effect, cost, and clinical departments. Data including general information of the inpatients, discharge diagnosis, hospitalization expenses, and drug cost etc. were rearranged and analyzed by Excel software. Result a) The total number of inpatients was 4 335 and the female/male was 55.59% vs. 44.1%, their disease spectrum included 18 categories, which accounted for 85% of disease classes of ICD-10; b) The inpatients suffered from top 5 systematic diseases were 3 531, accounted for 81.45%, which included the respiratory, digestive, urinary tract and urogenital, circulatory systems, as well as trauma and toxicosis. Except the trauma and toxicosis, the female was more than the male in all the rest main systematic diseases; c) The top 15 single diseases were chronic bronchitis in acute stage, acute upper respiratory infection, pneumonia, acute gastroenteritis, chronic bronchitis, urinary stone, acute appendicitis, chronic gastritis, acute gastritis, vertebrobasilar ischemia, cesarean section, fracture, acute urticaria, and meniere disease; d) The total inpatients with top 15 single diseases accounted for 59.81%, including 6 chronic diseases and 9 acute diseases. The patients’ average costs of chronic disease were higher than that of acute disease; and e) The proportion of western medicine cost accounted for 80% to 90% of total cost, and the cost of anti-microbial drugs and drugs of humoral regulation ranked as the top two. Conclusion a) The inpatients in 2009 are mainly in age of 25 to 59, and over 60 years old as well. The top two diseases mainly attacked are in respiratory and digestive systems, acute diseases are more than the chronic; b) Except for pneumonia, urinary stone, uroschesis, urinary stone, trauma, and toxicosis, the female inpatients are more than the male for complaining all other diseases; c) The number of inpatients received hysterotomy is as 4.24 times as that of natural labor, and the rationality should be paid attention to; d) The commonly used drugs, according to the costs, involve in 4 kinds of drugs and 1 kind of vaccine, which are in accordance with the main burden of the diseases; e) Supervision should be focused on the drugs of high cost or the one most frequently used; and f) The 0.9% Sodium chloride injection, Glucose injection and Cefuroxime listed in the EML (2009) satisfy the needs of treatment for YaC inpatients in 2009.
Medicine is a very important health resource in China. Although numerous efforts are paid to pre-marketed medicines, little is done to address practical problems in marketed medicines. The rational use and allocation of marketed medicines remain a major concern for decision-makers in China. It has been recognized that economic evaluation is an efficient tool for prioritizing the choice, and optimizing the use of medicines. This paper has explored the methods and principles for conducting economic evaluation of marketed medicines. Different strategies will be adopted for economic evidence for marketed medicines in terms of adequacy and sufficiency.However, a standard study pathway should be applied in economic evaluation of marketed medicines. Besides, the aspects for developing economic framework and the methods for reviewing existing economic evidence are also introduced in this paper, particularly, for marketed medicines within the same therapeutic group.
Objective To summarize the roles of tumor initiating cells （TICs） and epithelial-mesenchymal transition （EMT） in tumor metastasis and drug resistance. Methods Domestic and international publications online which involving TICs，EMT，and its roles in tumor metastasis and drug resistance in recent years were reviewed. Results TICs were self-renewal cells and had the ability to give rise to more differentiated cell types，and played an important role in tumor metastasis and drug resistance. Various markers had been used to identify TICs，such as CD133，CD44，and so on. EMT was the process by which epithelial cells losed polarity and detach from the epithelial sheet， and acquired a motile mesenchymal phenotype，usually observed in embryo development and wound healing. It also could promote tumor progression and metastasis，and may also be responsible for the ability of tumors to evade the body’s immune response. EMT may be the reasons of TICs that drived tumor metastasis and recurrence. TICs or EMT as a target for treatments may effectively prevent tumor recurrence and improve patient’s survival. Conclusions EMT is probably the mechanism that TICs promote tumor metastasis and drug resistance. More effective target therapies for cancer may be found if we know more about TICs and EMT.
【Abstract】ObjectiveTo establish adriamycin (ADM) resistant pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990/ADM and to investigate its drug resistance mechanism.MethodsADM-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990/ADM was obtained by culture of pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 in vitro with intermittently increasing the concentration of ADM in the culture medium for ten months. After two months of drug free culture, its biological characteristics, drug sensitivity as well as the expression and function of multidrug resistant gene 1 (mdr1) were detected, respectively. ResultsCompared with the parental cell line, SW1990/ADM showed great changes in biological characteristics and developed a cross resistance to various chemotherapy drugs. The drug resistance indexes of cell line SW1990/ADM to ADM, mitomycin, fluorouracil and gemcitabine were 49.60, 7.25, 3.80 and 1.25, respectively. The level of mdr1 mRNA expression in cell line SW1990/ADM was much higher than that of the parental cell line（P＜0.01). ConclusionWe have established adriamycin resistant pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990/ADM with multidrug resistance phenotype, its multidrug resistance is positively relevant to the expression of mdr1.
Cava-atrial shunt was performed in the Treatment of Budd-Chiari syndrome in two cases, in which one belonged to type Ⅲ， and the oother type Ⅱ,the recent results were satidgactory. A rare cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome in one case is that some drugs for occluding the spermiduct was inadveretntly injected into the spermatic vein and inferior vana cava.
Objective To analyze the clinical and etiological characteristics and bacterial susceptibility in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in Guangzhou area.Methods A retrospective study was conducted on VAP patients in four hospital of Guangzhou from Jan 2004 to Oct 2005.Totally 157 patients were enrolled in this study，whose flora was identified and tested by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test.The univariate analysis method was used to analyze the prognostic parameters.Results The average onset time of VAP was 7.7 days after mechanical ventilation with a mortality rate of 38.2%.The proportion of Gram-negative bacilli，Gram-positive cocci and eumycete was 68.0%，23.4% and 8.7% respectively in 184 isolated strains.The most common pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.5%)，Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (14.1％)，Burkholderia cepacia (10.9%)，Staphylococcus aureus (10.3%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (8.7%).Pseudomonas aeruginosa，Stenotrophomonas maltophilia，and Acinetobacter baumannii were resistant to most common antibacterials such as cephalosporin and imipenem.18 strains oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus，7 strains oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus simulans and one vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were isolated.Expect for vancomycin，teicoplanin and fusidic acid，the resistance of Gram-positive cocci were above 50% to other 9 antibacterials.Conclusions The antibiotic resistance situation of VAP in Guangzhou is very serious with high mortality.It is important to reinforce the prevention and guidance on the proper treatment of VAP.
Objective To explore the clinical epidemiological characteristics of the lung infection after orthotopical liver transplantation. Methods The clinical data included infection morbidity, mortality, infectious times and relative factors, clinical manifestations, the bacterial strains and distributions of the pathogens, the bacterial resistances of the 53 liver transplantation recipients from 2003.3～2006.12 were summarized and analyzed retrospectively. Results Among 53 recipients, 33 developed lung infectious and 6 died .The mobidity was 62.3% and mortality was 18.2%, with a OR of 1.0. Lung infection predominantly occurred in the first month, especially in the first week after transplantation.There were many factors related to lung infections.Various pathogens, especially Klebsialla, Escherichia Coli and Staphylococus Hominis were isolated from sputum, airway suction drainages and throat swabs. Most of the G- bacteria were sensitive to aminoglycosides,β lactam and lactamase compounds and carbapenems while G+ bacteria were sensitive only to glycopeptides. All the bacteria were resistant to quinolones, β lactams of third and forth generation. Conclusions After liver transplantation, the morbidity and mortality of the lung infections are high.The infections develope at earlier stage, manifest nontypical clinical features.Many factors are revealed to be relevant to the lung infections,meanwhile, various drug-resistant pathogen strains are isolated.
为预防应激性溃疡和消化道出血, 质子泵抑制剂( PPI) 、组胺H2 受体拮抗剂( H2 RA) 以及硫糖铝在ICU中的应用非常普遍。既往的研究认为以PPI 或H2RA 为代表的抑酸剂( ASD) 可致胃液pH 值增高, 为细菌在胃腔内定植创造了条件, 并进而增加医院获得性肺炎( HAP) , 尤其是呼吸机相关性肺炎( VAP) 发生的风险。我们通过文献复习发现,ASD 与VAP 的关联性迄今仍无明确的证据, 已有的临床研究结论互为矛盾; 另一方面, 既往研究多集中于硫糖铝与H2RA 的比较, 有关PPI 和H2RA 导致VAP 的风险比较研究仍然缺乏, PPI 是否比H2 RA 更易发生VAP 也缺乏研究可资证明。为此我们将有关内容综述如下, 以供同道参考。
Objective To observe the effects of different doses of atorvastatin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Methods Seventy-five healthy female SD rats were randomly divided into five groups ( 15 rats in each group) , ie. a normal group , a model group, a 10 mg/ kg atorvastatin-treated group, a 20 mg/ kg atorvastatin-treated group, and a 40 mg/ kg atorvastatin-treated group. The rats in the model group and treatment groups were instilled with bleomycin in trachea( 5 mg/kg) , and the normal group were instilled with equal volume of normal saline. The treatment groups were gastric gavaged with different doses of atorvastatin each day from2 nd day on after instillation, and the normal group and model group were gavaged with normal saline. Blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta in five rats in each group and blood gas analysis was performed on1st week, 2nd week and 4th week respectively after BLM instillation. Then the animals were killed and lung tissue samples were harvested for histopathology study. HE and Masson staining were used to determine the extent of alveolus inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis respectively.Histoimmunochemical stain were used to determine the protein levels of transforming growth factor-β1 ( TGF-β1 ) and connective tissue growth factor( CTGF) in pulmonary tissues. Results The arterial partial pressure of oxygenate ( PaO2 ) in the treatment groups were increased gradually with the increasing of therapeutic dose at each time point and decreased with prolongation of time in the same group. The protein levels of TGF-β1 and CTGF in pulmonary tissues were decreased gradually with prolongation of time. TGF-β1 and CTGF expressed obviously less in the treatment groups than those in the model group at each time point .The higher therapeutic doses were, the less the expressions of TGF-β1 and CTGF were. Conclusion Atorvastatin has remarkable inhibitory effects on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis of rats in a dose- and timedependentmanner.
Objective To investigate the initial drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M.tuberculosis) in patients with culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods 1184 patients who hospitalized in Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital with culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled. The absolute density method was used to assess the drug resistance of M. tuberculosis. Results M.tuberculosis were sensitive to all anti-tuberculosis drugs in 834 cases( 70. 44% ) , and resistant in 350 cases( 29. 56% ) , in which initial resistance and secondary resistance accounted for 44. 86% ( 157/350) and 55. 14% ( 193 /350) respectively. In 157 cases with initial resistance, 53 cases ( 33. 8% ) were mono-drug resistant tuberculosis( MonoDR-TB) , of which 38 cases were resistance to Streptomycin( 24. 2% ) ; 72 cases( 45. 9% ) were polydrug-resistant tuberculosis ( PDR-TB) ; 20 cases ( 12. 7% ) were multidrug-resistant tuberculosis ( MDR-TB) ; 12 cases ( 7. 6% ) were extensively drug resistant tuberculosis ( XDR-TB) . There was no totally drug-resistant tuberculosis ( TDR-TB) . Conclusions The initial drug resistance of M.tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis is still serious. Unified management of TB control programs and full supervision of chemotherapy are very imperative.