Objective To compare endoscopic sinius surgery plus middle meatus fenestration with endoscopic sinius surgery plus middle and inferior meatus fenestration for fungus ball maxillary sinusitis. Methods Applying a prospective randomized controlled trial, 80 patients with fungal ball maxillary sinusitis from January, 2010 to March, 2011 were collected and then divided into two groups, including experiment (40 cases) and control groups (40 cases). The trial group received endoscopic sinius surgery plus middle and inferior meatus fenestration, which the control group received endoscopic sinius surgery plus middle meatus fenestration. Then a follow-up was conducted from the end of surgery to February 28th, 2013. All patients took subjective and objective assessment before and after the surgery, including VAS, SNOT-20, Lund-Mackay CT system scores and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic mucosal score. Results with the trial group was superior to the control group in VAS score, SNOT rating and Lund-Kennedy mucosa score 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery (Plt;0.01). Lund-Mackay CT score of the control group was significantly higher than the trial group after 1 year of surgery (Plt;0.01). According to the Haikou standard to assess the efficacy of surgery, we found that the total effectiveness rate of the trial group (100.0%; recovery: 36 cases; improved: 4 cases) was higher than that of the control group (87.5%; recovery: 28 cases; improved: 4 cases), with a significant difference (P=0.021). Conclusion Endoscopic sinius surgery plus middle and inferior meatus fenestration with a lower reoccurrence rate is superior to endoscopic sinius surgery plus middle meatus fenestration for fungus ball maxillary sinusitis in clinical efficacy.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trimetazidine (TMZ) for chronic congestive heart failure. Methods We searched The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2006), MEDLINE (1990-2006), EMBASE (1990-2004), and the Chinese Biomedicine Database (1990- 2006 ) for parallel group randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cross-over design trials comparing TMZ and placebo or open controls for patients with heart failure.We used The Cochrane Collaboration’s RevMan 4.2 software for data analyses. Results Four RCTs and two cross-over design trials were included. Meta-analyses showed that: compared with the control group, TMZ may improve the NYHA cardiac functional grade (RR 0.85, 95%CI 0.76 to 0.95), increase the total exercise time (WMD 51.40 seconds, 95%CI 15.56 to 87.25), the maximal metabolic equivalents (WMD 0.82, 95%CI 0.28 to 1.37), and the ejection fraction (WMD 7.29%, 95%CI 6.28 to 8.31), but may decrease the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (WMD –12.19 ml, 95%CI –15.29 to –9.09), the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (WMD –6.05 mm, 95%CI –7.10 to –4.99), the left ventricular end-systolic volume (WMD –16.94 ml, 95%CI –20.34 to –13.55), the left ventricular end-systolic diameter (WMD –5.42 mm, 95%CI –5.98 to –4.86), and the serum brain natriuretic peptide (WMD –239.59 pg/ml, 95%CI –276.53 to –202.65). TMZ may also improve the quality of life (WMD 12.36, 95%CI 5.16 to 19.55). Conclusions TMZ plus standard medical therapy has a beneficial effect on the indices of cardiac function, and may also improve the patient’s quality of life. However, because available RCTs for this systematic review are too small and poor quality, (mainly focusing on the heart failure induced by ischemic heart diseases and merely taking intermediate indices as outcome measures), further high-quality large-scale RCTs with death as the endpoint and which include subgroup analysis of non-ischemic heart failure, are required in order to provide more reliable evidence.
Objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of nine lipid-lowing agents in the national essential drug list (2000) and provide evidence for the adjustment and selection of essential drugs. Methods Based on principles of health technology assessment (HTA) and evidence-based medicine, we searched for all published clinical studies about these drugs from the following databases: MEDLINE (1966-2002.8), The Cochrane Library, EMBASE (1974-2002), CBMdisk (1979-2002.8) and VIP (1989-2002.8), the database of National Center for Adverse Drug Reaction(ADR) Monitoring of China and the database of WHO Uppsala drug monitoring center. Included studies were appraised, analyzed and compared for the reduction of triglyceride (TC) or low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the prevention for the coronary events and the incidence of ADR. Results The results from comparative trials for lipid-lowing agents showed that the equivalent dose of statins for 25% reduction of LDL-C was atorvastatin 10 mg/d, simvastatin 20 mg/d, pravastatin 40mg/d, lovastatin 40 mg/d, cerivastatin 0.3 mg/d and fluvastatin 80 mg/d. It was difficult to compare fenofibrate with gemfibrozil, acipimox with statins or fibrates based on available data. The study on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events showed that pravastatin and lovastatin were effective in primary prevention, and long-term use could reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease.Gemfibrozil could reduce the mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) but the overall mortality was not changed. Pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, gemfibrozil and fenofibrate had a confirmed effect in secondary prevention. Data from large-scale clinical trials and the reports from ADR monitoring center of England, America, Canada and Australia suggested that the statins which had rare ADR were safe and tolerated. Rhabdomyolysis was rare but had a serious adverse reaction associated with statins. The rate of fatal rhabdomyolysis related to cerivastatin was the highest among 6 statins. The safety of simvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin was lower than cerivastatin but higher than simvastatin and atorvastatin. The number of ADR reports of fenofibrate was fewer than that of gemfibrozil. Conclusions At present, the best evidence focused on pravastatin, simvastatin and lovastatin are widely used and have a confirmed safety and efficacy. Atorvastatin, fluvastatin and fenofibrate still need more data to confirm their effects on coronary heart disease prevention. The drugs which were shown to be inferior or insufficient evidence are cerivastatin, gemfibrozil and acipimox.
Objective To investigate whether de-escalation antibacterial therapy would be helpful to antifungal treatment in patients with invasive pulmonary fungal infection( IPFI) .Methods A prospective study was conducted in 174 IPFI patients( male 106, female 68) in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from January 2008 to July 2010. The clinical data was collected including symptoms, physical signs,microbiological results, treatment and prognosis, etc. The therapeutic results were compared between the patients who received or did not receive de-escalation antibacterial therapy. Results The predominant pathogenic fungus was Candida albicans, which accounted for 59. 7% of IPFI. The effect of antifungal therapy showed statistically significant difference between the patients who received de-escalation antibacterial therapy and the patients who did not ( 60. 0% vs. 34. 5% , P =0. 001) . Conclusion The deescalation use of antibacterial therapy would be helpful to antifungal efficacy.
Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of sildenafil in one case of PoPH patients. Methods A case of PoPH patient who was successfully treated with sildenafil was retrospectively analyzed，and literatures related sildenafil and PoPH were reviewed. Results A case of PoPH patient admitted with dyspnea on extetion was diagnosed with echocardiography，gastroscrope and other examinations. She was treated with sildenafil and responded well by decreased pulmonary arterial pressure，improved exercise tolerance and life quality，without obvious side effects. Literatures review suggested that PoPH is an under-recognized but life-threatening complication of cirrhosis or noncirrhotic portal hypertension with poor prognosis which exists in decompensated chronic liver diseases patients. The most classic symptoms of PoPH is progressive dyspnea on extertion. PoPH patients may benefit from sildenafil therapy with decreased pulmonary arterial pressure and improved life quality. Conclusions Theawareness of PoPH should be increased and Sildenafil may be effective and safe for PoPH patients. However，more evidences from clinical trials are needed.
Objective To explore the efficacy of humidified high flow nasal cannula ( HHFNC) for respiratory failure after ventilator weaning in post-operative newborns and infants with congenital heart disease. Methods FromJanuary 2010 to August 2010, 33 newborns and infants [ ( 7. 8 ±8. 4) months, range 3 days to 36 months; weight ( 6. 6 ±3. 6) kg, range 2. 2 to 19. 6 kg] were treated with HHFNC ( 22 cases) and routine oxygen therapy ( 11 cases) for respiratory failure following ventilator weaning after operation of congenital heart disease. Symptoms, blood oxygen saturation ( SpO2 ) , partial pressure of oxygen( PaO2 ) , partial pressure of carbondioxide ( PaCO2 ) , incidence rate of re-intubation, duration of ICU, and hospital stay were assessed and compared between the HHFNC group and the routine oxygen therapy group.Results There were no statistical significance in the duration of ICU, hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or infection rate between the HHFNC group and the routine oxygen therapy group ( P gt; 0. 05) . But the incidence rate of re-intubation was lower in the HHFNC group than that in the routine oxygen therapy group. Meanwhile SpO2 and PaO2 increased and PaCO2 decreased significantly in the HHFNC group ( P lt;0. 05) . Conclusion HHFNC shows a clinical improvement rapidly and efficiently in preventing respiratory failure after ventilator weaning in post-operative newborns and infants with congenital heart disease.
Objective To discuss the relationship between recovery of anatomical integrity and functional outcome in elderly patients with distal radius fractures by comparing the effects of open reduction and closed reduction. Methods The cl inical data were retrospectively analyzed from 78 elderly patients with distal radius fractures treating with nonoperation andoperation from February 2005 to March 2009. Thirty-seven patients underwent closed reduction and spl intlet fixation or cast appl ication (non-operation group), and forty-one patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation (operation group). In non-operation group, there were 15 males and 22 females with an average age of 73 years (60-83 years). According to the AO classification system for fracture, there were 8 cases of type A2, 7 cases of type A3, 7 cases of type B1, 4 cases of type B2, 2 cases of type B3, 4 cases of type C1, 2 cases of type C2, and 3 cases of type C3. The time from injury to admission was between 30 minutes and 3 days with a mean time of 1 day. In operation group, there were 18 males and 23 females with an average age of 71 years (62-80 years). According to the AO classification system for fracture, there were 5 cases of type A2, 7 cases of type A3, 7 cases of type B1, 6 cases of type B2, 3 cases of type B3, 4 cases of type C1, 5 cases of type C2, and 4 cases of type C3. The time from injury to admission was between 30 minutes and 7 days with a mean time of 1 day. There were no significant differences (P gt; 0.05) in sex, age, disease course and fracture classification between two groups. Results All incisions obtained heal ing by first intention after operation in operation group. All patients were followed up for 9-36 months (20 months on average). Fracture heal ing was achieved within 8 to 15 weeks, with an average of 11 weeks. There were no significant differences (P gt; 0.05) in fracture heal ing time between non-operation group [(10.8 ± 2.0) weeks] and operation group [(11.7 ± 2.5) weeks]. At last follow-up, thepalmar tilt angle was (5.6 ± 2.0)° and (8.6 ± 3.0)°, the radial incl ination angle was (19.1 ± 4.9)° and (21.8 ± 2.0)°, and the radial length was (8.3 ± 1.3) mm and (10.4 ± 1.4) mm in non-operation group and operation group, respectively; showing significant differences (P lt; 0.05) between two groups. According to the Gartland-Werley score, the results were excellent in 9 cases, good in 21 cases, fair in 5 cases, and poor in 2 cases in non-operation group, the excellent and good rate was 81.1%; in operation group, the results were excellent in 13 cases, good in 25 cases, fair in 2 cases, and poor in 1 case, the excellent and good rate was 92.7%, showing no significant difference (P gt; 0.05) between two groups. There were no significant differences (P gt; 0.05) in flexion and extension activity of wrist, radioulnar partial activity, pronation-supination activity, grip and pinch strength between two groups. Conclusion Open reduction and closed reduction can achieve satisfactory functional outcomes, but closed reduction was inferior to open reduction in anatomic reduction for treating distal radius fractures in elderly patients.
Objective To evaluate and compare the efficacy of anterior subcutaneous and submuscular transposition of the ulnar nerve in treating cubital tunnel syndrome. Methods From August 2006 to August 2008, 66 patients with cubital tunnel syndrome were treated with anterior subcutaneous transposition (subcutaneous group, 24 cases) and with anterior submuscular transposition (submuscular group, 42 cases). According to McGowan stages, all patients were at Stage2 or 3 entrapment neuropathy with paresthesia in the ring and small fingers. Respectively, 3 cases and 8 cases compl icated by interosseous muscle atrophy in subcutaneous group and in submuscular group. No significant difference was found in gender, age, duration of the disease, and compl ication between two groups (P lt; 0.05). The surgical features, distribution of Bishop rates, two-point discrimination test, muscular strength, and compl ications were recorded. Results The operation time was (28.4 ± 5.2) minutes in subcutaneous group and (43.8 ± 5.6) minutes in submuscular group, showing significant difference (P lt; 0.01). The incision length was (12.2 ± 2.5) cm in subcutaneous group and (13.6 ± 2.8) cm in submuscular group, showing significant difference (P lt; 0.05). All patients were followed up 1-3 years. According to Bishop scoring system, the results were excellent in 18 cases, good in 4 cases, and poor in 2 cases in subcutaneous group; excellent in 36 cases, good in 3 cases, and poor in 3 cases in submuscular group; and showing no significant difference between two groups (P gt; 0.05). At 6 months postoperatively, twopoint discrimination and grip strength were improved when compared with that of preoperation (P lt; 0.05), but there was no significant difference between two groups (P gt; 0.05). Pain and dysesthesia of the scar were noted in 1 patient of the subcutaneous group and 3 patients of the submuscular group. No infection or hematoma was found and no patient needed reoperation. Conclusion Both operative methods are effective alternative for treating cubital tunnel syndrome. The anterior ubcutaneous anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve has fewer traumas, and it is a better choice for some old patients.
Objective To compare the therapeutic effect of cannulated screws fixation at different time points through different reduction methods on the heal ing of displaced femoral neck fractures. Methods From January 1997 to September 2007, 240 patients with displaced femoral neck fracture were treated, including 121 males and 119 females aged 22-79 years old (average 56 years old). All cases were fresh and close fractures. According to the fractured part, there were 133cases of subcapital fracture, 64 of transcervical fracture and 43 of basal fracture. According to Garden classification, there were 105 cases of type III and 135 of type IV. Cannulated screws fixation was performed on all the patients, and the time from injury to operation was 6 hours to 7 days. Fifty-five cases received closed reduction and 59 cases received l imited open reduction as emergency treatment, while 65 cases received closed reduction and 61 cases received l imited open reduction as selective operation. Different groups were compared in terms of the heal ing rate of fracture, the excellent and good rate of reduction as well as the excellent and good rate of fixation. Results There was no significant difference between the closed reduction and the l imited open reduction in terms of operation time and bleeding volume (P gt; 0.05). Postoperatively, all wounds healed by first intention, no infection was observed, avascular necrosis of femoral head occurred in 44 cases, and the rate of avascular necrosis of femoral head in the l imited open reduction at emergency group was less than that of other 3 groups (P lt; 0.01). All the patients were followed up for 12-72 months (average 38 months), 193 cases got fracture heal ing at 10-23 months after operation (average 14 months). For the closed reduction as emergency operation group, the l imited open reduction as emergency operation group, the closed reduction as selective operation group, and the l imited open reduction as selective operation group, the heal ing rate of fracture was 74.55%, 91.53%, 69.23% and 86.89%, respectively; the excellent and good rate of reduction was 73.73%, 94.92%,70.77% and 91.80%, respectively; the excellent and good rate of fixation was 76.36%, 93.22%, 73.85% and 88.52%, respectively. The heal ing rate of fracture, the excellent and good rate of reduction as well as the excellent and good rate of fixation in the l imited open groups were higher than that of the closed reduction groups (Plt; 0.01), and there was no significant difference between the emergency operation groups and the selective operational groups (Pgt; 0.05). Conclusion The reduction methods have significant influences on the heal ing of fractures after cannulated screws fixation of the displaced femoral neck fracture, and the operation time has no obvious effect on fracture heal ing.
Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of bioactive material(combest) which is combinated with bioglass and hyaluronan on burn wound healing．Methods From March to September 2006, 20 patients were treated; including 16 males and 4 females, aging 18-58 years(40 years on average)．The wounds were classified as deep degrees Ⅱ in 7 cases, granulated wounds in 9 cases and graft site wounds in 4 cases. Twenty wounds in one side were repaired with Combest as the test group and 20 wounds in the other side with blank cream as the control group. The wounds in size ranged from 2.0 cm×1.5 cm to 40.0 cm×20.0 cm. The wound healing rate was observed, and the blood test and the indices of hepatic and renal function were determined on the 1st, 3 rd,6 th, 11 th, 16 th and 21 st days of treatment．Results Wound healed within 3 weeks in 11 cases of the test group (3 cases on the 11 st day, 4 on the 16 th day, and 4 on the 21 st day) , but no wound healing was observed within 3 weeks in the control group. The healing size accounted for 2/3 of wounds in 18 cases of the test group and in 1 case of the control group. The excellent and good rates were 95%(18 cases and 1 case) in the test group and 50% (1 case and 9 cases) in the control group, showing significant difference (Plt;0.01). For all patients, no obvious changes were found in the blood test and hepatic or renal function indices. Conclusion Combest combinated with bioglass and hyaluronan is beneficial to the proliferation of the granulation and wound healing with good safety.