Objective To investigate the changes and significance of serum inflammatory factors in coronary heart disease ( CHD) patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome ( OSAHS) , and the treatment effects of continuous positive airway pressure( CPAP) . Methods A total of 76 CHD patients in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from October 2007 to October 2008 were enrolled. Polysomnography ( PSG) was performed in these CHD patients to identify if they were complicated by OSAHS. The levels of inflammatory factors including TNF-α, IL-6, high sensitive C-reactive protein ( hs-CRP) in serum were determined in the CHD patients and 23 normal subjects. The CHD patients with moderate-severe OSAHS ( AHI≥15 episodes/hour) were treated by Auto-CPAP for 3 months and all parameters above were measured again. Results There were 41 /76 ( 53. 9% ) of CHD patients had moderate-severe OSAHS and were treated with CPAP. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and hs-CRP were significantly higher in the CHD patients than those in the normal controls ( all P lt; 0. 01) , and were significantly higher in moderate-severe OSAHS patients than those in the non-OSAHS CHD patients. Auto-CPAP ventilation significantly decreased the levels of inflammatory factors in the CHD patients with moderate-severe OSAHS. Conclusions An obvious proinflammatory state is detected in CHD patients, and is aggravated with OSAHS. CPAP is a useful treatment for CHD patients with mediate to severe OSAHS.
Objective To explore the role of macrophage-stimulating protein ( MSP) and receptor tyrosine kinase RON in the airway inflammation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD) , and investigate its possible mechanism. Methods The rat COPDmodel was established by exposing the rats to cigarette smoke daily for three months. Rat alveolar macrophages ( AMs) were isolated in vivo and cultured,and then challenged with different concentrations of MSP for 24 hours. The concentrations of MSP in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid ( BALF) and serum, and the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. The expression of RONmRNA in lung tissue was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The levels of RON protein in the lung tissue and AMs cultured in vitro were observed by immunohistochemistry. The activity of superoxide dismutase ( SOD) and malondialdehyde ( MDA) content in the culture solution were measured with chromatometry method. Results Compared with the control group, the concentrations of MSP in serum and BALF of the COPD rats were significantly higher ( P lt;0. 01) . The levels of RONmRNA and RON protein in the COPD rats were also upregulated significantly ( P lt; 0. 01) . MSP evoked the AMs isolated from the normal and COPD rats to generate more content of MDA and caused a reduction in activity of SOD. In addition, MSP stimulated TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1βand IL-10 release fromAMs of the normal and COPD rats dose-dependently. The levels of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-1βwere higher, while the level of IL-10 and the SOD activity were lower in AMs of the COPD group than those of the control group in the same dose of MSP ( P lt;0. 01) . The more significant increase in the levels of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, and the more notable decrease in the activity of SOD was found in the COPD group compared with the control group. But the degree of increasing MDA and IL-10 in the AMs of the COPD group was lower than that in the control group. Linear correlation analysis showed that the MSP concentration and the RON protein level in the COPD rats were positively associated with the total cellcounts and AM counts in BALF, and were related to the indexes for pulmonary emphysema. Conclusions There is a close correlation between the MSP and receptor tyrosine kinase RON with the airway inflammation of COPD. The mechanism might be that MSP promote the macrophages release inflammatory factors and increase the production of oxygen free radicals.
Abstract： Objective To explore the feasibility of using protamine-agarose gel to achieve heparin-free cardiopulmonary bypass （CPB）. Methods A total of 12 healthy adult dogs were chosen, the dogs were between 2-3 years old,either male or female, with their mean body weight of 23.3±3.7 kg （ranging from 20 to 28 kg）. All the dogs were randomly divided into two groups with 6 dogs in each group. In the heparinized group, conventional CPB technique was used; in the non-heparinized group, protamine-agarose gel column was used to absorb plasma clotting factors in CPB without use of heparin. At the beginning of CPB and 1 h, 2 h, 3 h after CPB, arterial blood samples were collected from dogs in both groups. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α （TNF-α）, interleukin-6 （IL-6） and interleukin-8 （IL-8） were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay（ELISA）and compared. Results There was no thrombus formation in the membrane oxygenators during CPB by naked eye observation in both groups. Activated coagulation time （ACT） was always greater than 480 s during CPB. The vital signs of the dogs were all stable during CPB. At the beginning of CPB, there was no statistical difference in plasma concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 between the two groups. At 1 h, 2 h and 3 h after CPB, the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-8 of the non-heparinized group were significantly higher than those of the heparinized group （CPB 3 h TNF-α：156.48±16.65 ng/L vs. 115.87±15.63 ng/L, t=4.356, P=0.001；CPB 3 h IL-8：365.38±46.18 ng/L vs. 299.29±34.50 ng/L, t=2.808, P=0.019）. There was no statistical difference in the expression level of IL-6 between the two groups （P＞0.05）. Conclusion Using protamine-agarose gel to absorb plasma clotting factors is an effective technique to establish heparin-free CPB. But this method can induce significant systemic inflammatory response.
Objective To investigate the effect of sodium hyaluronate (SH) intra-articular injection on the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA), andto compare the contents of free radicals and inflammatory factors in joint fluids of pre-and pro-treatment as to explore the treatment mechanism of SH. Methods Ninety-two patients (111 knees) with mild(51)，moderate(35) and serious(25) knee OA were treated with intra-articular injections of SH (20 mg once a week for 5 weeks). According to Lysholm scoring, clinical signs such aspain, swelling,and the ability to walk, squat, run, go upstairs and downstairs were assessed before and after the treatment, and the contents of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase(SOD), malonic dialdehyde(MDA) and IL-1β、TNF-α in joint fluids from the OA joints before 1st,2nd, and 5th injection and 3 months after each injection were observed. Results All cases were followed up for 3 months. The improvements in the signs and function of knees were excellent in 42 knees, good in 38 knees, fair in 21 knees and poor in 10 knees, with 72.1% excellent and good results. The lighter the illness was, the better the improvement was: the rate of the excellent and good was 92.1% in mild group, 68.6% in moderate group and 42.9% in serious group. The contents of oxygen free radicals and IL-1β、TNF-α of the patients with mild and moderate OA decreasedmarkedly after being treated with SH（Plt;0.05）, but these decreased lightlyin serious OA group（Pgt;0.05）. SH had mild effect on the contents of NO. Three months after treatment, only in mild OA group the contents of NO significantly decreased（Plt;0.05）, and no significant change in moderate and serious groups was observed（Pgt;0.05）. Conclusion SH intraarticular injection has a positive effect on the relief of clinical symptoms and on the improvement of articular function of knee OA. The therapeutical effect of SH on OA is achieved possibly by decreasing the contents of free radicals especially oxygen free radicals and inflammatory factors in joint fluids.
Objective To investigate the influence of proteasome inhibitorMG-132 on inflammatory factors in COPD rats and its potential mechanism. Methods The COPD rat model was established by instillation of lipopolysaccharide and exposure to cigarette smoke. Then the rats were randomly divided into 4 groups( n = 12 in each group) , ie. a COPD model group, a COPD + MG-132 low concentration group ( 0. 05 mg·kg- 1·d - 1 ) , a COPD + MG-132 high concentration group( 0. 1 mg· kg- 1 · d - 1 ) , and a normal control group. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with different dose of MG-132 or normal saline. After 1 week and 4 weeks, 6 rats in each group were sarcrificed. Then the following parameters were determined including histopathological changes of lung tissue, and the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 in serum and diaphragm via ELISA. Results The lung histopathological examination showed obvious emphysema and inflammatory infiltration in the COPD rats. These pathological changes were obviously ameliorated in two MG-132 treatment groups. The IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in serumand diaphragmin the COPD model group were all significantly increased from1 week and 4 week than those in the normal control group( P lt;0. 05) .MG-132 down-regulated the expression of these inflammatory factors in a time-and dosedependent manner. The IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in serum and diaphragm in the MG-132 low concentration group and high concentration group were all decreased compared with the COPD model group ( P lt; 0. 05) . Conclusion COPD is a systemic inflammatory disease which can be inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 through suppressing inflammatory factors.
ObjectiveTo summarize the clinical usage of modified ultrafiltration in pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass. MethodsWe selected 40 infants with congenital heart defects as our study subjects between January 2010 and February 2012. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group used modified ultrafiltration, while the other did not, during the operation with cardiopulmonary bypass. The different perioperative changes of pulmonary pressure and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration in plasma were observed in both the two groups. ResultsNo complication relative to modified ultrafiltration was found. After the operations began, TNF and IL-8 concentration in the two groups rose fast; at the end of operations and 2 hours after operation, the pulmonary pressure and TNF and IL-8 concentration in the two groups decreased, and the decrease in the modified ultrafiltration group was faster. ConclusionThe use of modified ultrafiltration during operations with cardiopulmonary bypass can reduce residual water within the body in a short period and decrease the concentration of inflammatory factors, which is helpful for postoperative recovery of the cardiac and lung functions.
ObjectiveTo explore the levels of serum leptin,TNF-α,IL-8 and hypersensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in stable COPD patients with different body mass index (BMI). Methods30 healthy controls with BMI 18.5 to 23.9 kg/m2 and 105 patients with stable COPD were recruited in the study. The serum levels of leptin,TNF-α,and IL-8 were determined by radioimmunoassay and hs-CRP level was determined by versatile biochemical automatic analyzer. The COPD patients were divided into a low BMI group (BMI<18.5 kg/m2,n=32),a normal BMI group (BMI 18.5-23.9 kg/m2,n=48),and a high BMI group (BMI≥23.9 kg/m2,n=25). ResultsSerum leptin level in the COPD patients was significantly reduced compared with the control subjects (P<0.05). Serum leptin levels were reduced in the low BMI and the high BMI groups compare with the normal BMI group [(7.89±3.16)ng/L and (10.52±5.98)ng/L vs. (13.04±5.73) ng/L,P<0.01 or P<0.05]. Leptin level in the low BMI group was lower than that in the high BMI group (P<0.05). Serum TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the low BMI group compared with the normal BMI and high BMI groups [(229.39±89.57)μg/L vs. (180.06±74.24) μg/L and (189.46±82.41) μg/L,P<0.01]. Serum TNF-α level in the COPD patients was significantly increased compared with the control subjects [(192.37±83.65) μg/L vs. (178.59±60.38) μg/L,P<0.05]. The IL-8 levels were not significant different among three BMI groups with COPD. The hs-CRP level in the high BMI group was higher than that in the low BMI and normal BMI groups (P<0.05). ConclusionLeptin and TNF-α may be involved in weight-loss of COPD malnutritional patients.
ObjectiveTo investigate the changes of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue of COPD rats and the effects of tiotropium.To identify the anti-inflammatory function of tiotropium. MethodsRat COPD model was established by passive smoking as well as intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide(LPS).Thirty male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a COPD group and a tiotropium bromide treatment group (n=10 in each group).The pathologic changes of the lung tissue and airway were observed by HE staining.The total and differential cell counts in BALF were observed.The levels of IL-8, TNF-α, PLA2 in serum, BALF and lung tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ResultsHE staining revealed that the rat COPD model was successfully established.The COPD group appeared obvious emphysema, while the treatment group appeared mild emphysema.The total inflammatory cells, the proportion of neutrophils and lymphocyte, and the levels of IL-8, TNF-α, PLA2 in serum, BALF and lung tissue in the COPD group were obviously higher than those in the control group (P < 0.01).The total inflammatory cells, the proportion of neutrophils and lymphocyte, and the levels of IL-8, TNF-α, PLA2 in serum, BALF and lung tissue in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the COPD group but higher than those in the control group (P < 0.01). ConclusionsTiotropium bromide can reduce the levels of IL-8, TNF-α, PLA2 in serum, BALF and lung tissue of COPD rats by reducing the leakage of inflammatory cells, and alleviate the airway inflammation and the degree of emphysema.
ObjectiveTo investigate the levels of nutritional status, serum leptin, TNF-α, IL-8 and C-reactive protein(CRP) in patients with two clinical phenotypes of COPD. MethodsNutritional parameters, including body mass index, percent ideal body weight, triceps skin-fold thickness, mid-upper arm circumference, albumin, lymphocytes count, serum leptin, TNF-α, IL-8 and CRP levels were determined in 40 healthy controls and 120 patients with COPD. The COPD patients were divided into a typical emphysema type(A group) and a bronchitis type(B group), both groups included COPD patients in acute exacerbation phase and in stable phase. ResultsThe nutritional parameters in B group were higher than those in A group(P < 0.05). Serum leptin level was lower in stable A group and stable B group than that in the control group[(7.76±2.93) ng/L and (10.04±5.11) ng/L vs. (14.93±8.47) ng/L, P < 0.05], higher in A group[(12.99±5.56) ng/L)] and B group in acute exacerbation phase[(13.52±5.82) ng/L] than that in stable phase(P < 0.05), and lower in stable A group than that in stable B group (P < 0.05). Serum TNF-αlevel was higher in A group with acute exacerbation than that in B group with acute exacerbation and the control group[(234.65±95.74)μg/L and(195.03±88.00)μg/L vs. (182.07±42.35)μg/L, P < 0.05], and higher in stable A group than that in stable B group[(225.31±84.14)μg/L vs. (188.17±72.62)μg/L, P < 0.05]. Serum IL-8 level in A and B groups in acute exacerbation phase and stable phase was higher than that in the control group(P < 0.05), and was not significantly different between A group and B group in acute exacerbation or stable phase(P > 0.05). The CRP level was higher in A group and B group with acute exacerbation than that in the control group[(46.87±35.89) mg/L and(70.11±65.50) mg/L vs. (5.05±4.49) mg/L, P < 0.01], and higher in B group with acute exacerbation than that in A group with acute exacerbation (P < 0.05). ConclusionsThere are differences in nutritional status, serum leptin, TNF-αand CRP levels between the emphysema type and bronchitis type of COPD, while the IL-8 level is not different between two phenotypes. Leptin and TNF-αmay be involved in weight-loss of malnutritional COPD patients.
ObjectiveTo investigate whether the miR-33s negatively regulates LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by targeting p38 MAPK. MethodsHuman monocytes THP-1 cells were cultured in vitro and transfected with miR-33s mimic (25 nmol/L) or miR-33s inhibitor (25 nmol/L)by TransIT-X2® Dynamic Delivery System for 24 h. Then the transfected THP-1 cells were stimulated by LPS of 10.0 ng/mL for 24 h. The expression of miR-33s and p38 MAPK protein were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The concentrations of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β in the cultured supernatant were assessed by ELISA. ResultsThe transfection of miR-33s mimic significantly increased the release of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β(P<0.05). The expression of p38 MAPK protein was also significantly reduced(P<0.05). However,the pre-treatment of miR-33s inhibitor reversed the LPS-induced release of TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-1β,and the expression of p38 MAPK protein of THP-1 cells. ConclusionmiR-33s may play an important role in the regulation in inflammatory factors released from THP-1 cells by targeting p38 MAPK.