Objective To investigate the incidence and risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with myocardial infarction. Methods A total of 634 patients with myocardial infarction from Beijing Anzhen Hospital were asked to take liver and gallbladder ultrasonography during hospitalization, and then divided into the NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups. The incidence and risk factors of the two groups were then analyzed. Results The incidence of NAFLD was 52.2% (331/634). Both body mass index (BMI) and serum alanine aminotransferase of the NAFLD group were higher than those of non-NAFLD group, with significant difference (Plt;0.05). The incidence of NAFLD was positively increased following the severity of coronary diseases (χ2=7.275, P=0.03). The result of multivariable logistic regression analysis showed BMI, multi-vessel lesions of coronary disease, and left main coronary artery lesion were the independent risk factors of NAFLD. Conclusion The myocardial infarction patients who are particularly complicated by overweight, multi-vessel lesions and left main coronary artery lesion have a higher incidence of NAFLD.
Objective To systematically review the effectiveness of amiodarone in treating repurfusion arrhythmia (RA) after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), so as to provide high quality evidence for formulating the rational thrombolytic therapy for AMI. Methods Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) on amiodarone in treating RA after thrombolytic therapy for AMI were electronically retrieved in PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2012), CBM, CNKI, VIP and WanFang Data from inception to January, 2013. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed quality. Then RevMan 5.1 software was used for meta-analysis. Results A total of 5 RCTs involving 440 patients were included. The results of meta-analysis suggested that, compared with the blank control, amiodarone reduced the incidence of RA after thrombolytic therapy in treating AMI (RR=0.60, 95%CI 0.48 to 0.74, Plt;0.000 01) and the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (RR=0.47, 95%CI 0.26 to 0.85, P=0.01). It neither affected the recanalization rate of occluded arteries after thrombolytic therapy (RR=1.00, 95%CI 0.88 to 1.15, P=0.94) nor decreased the mortality after surgery (RR=0.33, 95%CI 0.10 to 1.09, P=0.07). Conclusion Current evidence indicated that, amiodarone can decrease the incidence of RA. Unfortunately, the mortality rate can’t be reduced by amiodarone. Due to the limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high quality studies are needed to verify the above conclusion
Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of acute myocardial infarction ( AMI) in elderly patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( AECOPD) .Methods Clinical data of 16 elderly patients with AECOPD and AMI from may 2007 to December 2009 were reviewed. Meanwhile, 128 elderly AECOPD patients without AMI were analyzed as control. Results Neither the AMI group nor the control group had typical precordial pain, conscious disturbance, andhypotension. Compared with the control group, the main symptoms of the AMI group were worsening of chest tightness and dyspnea( 16 /16 vs. 4/128, P lt;0. 01) ,most of which accompanying fever( 11/16 vs. 6/128, P lt;0. 05) and anorexia ( 10/16 vs. 23 /128, P lt; 0. 05) . The incidence of patches-like shadow on chest X-rayincreased ( 16 /16 vs. 62/128, P lt;0. 05) , PaO2 ( mm Hg) decreased ( 43. 72 ±3. 64 vs. 82. 26 ±11. 41, P lt;0. 001) , the red blood cell count ( ×1012 /L) increased ( 6. 43 ±0. 42 vs. 4. 11 ±1. 24, P lt; 0. 05) , the concentration of total cholesterol ( mmol /L) increased ( 6. 51 ±0. 84 vs. 3. 93 ±1. 14, P lt; 0. 05) , the needfor invasive mechanical ventilation increased ( 13/16 vs. 11 /128, P lt; 0. 05) , the days in hospital were prolonged ( 35 ±13 vs. 11 ±3, P lt; 0. 01) , the cost ( 1000 RMB) increased( 32 ±11 vs. 7. 6 ±2. 8, P lt;0. 01) , and the mortality also increased ( 2/16 vs. 3 /128, P lt;0. 01) . Conclusion AMI should be alerted in the case of sudden exacerbation of chest tightness and dyspnea in elderly patients with AECOPD.
The application of stem cell therapy for ischemic heart disease has aroused widespread interest. There have been many experimental studies concerning a variety of tissue stem cells such as bone marrow，blood，skin and skeletalmuscle stem cells，and their origins, differentiation and protein expressions are compared. In recent years，it is found that adipose-derived stromal cells （ADSCs） have potential advantages over other types of stem cells in that they are widely available and easily harvested through a simple liposuction procedure，and have a high regenerative capacity and therapeuticpotential for myocardial infarction. This review describes molecular and biological properties of ADSCs，their differentiationpotential，and regenerative and therapeutic potential for myocardial repair.
Objective To identify clinical significance of high level cardiac troponin I （cTnI） in the early postoperative period of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting （OPCAB） and its predictive value for early clinical outcomes. Methods A total of 240 patients undergoing isolated OPCAB in the Department of Cardiac Surgery of People’s Hospitalof Peking University during 2011 were recruited in the study. There were 164 males and 76 females with their age of 36-83（62.07±8.24） years. Serum cTnI levels in 4-6 hours and 12-18 hours after OPCAB were monitored. Influential factors and its predictive value for early clinical outcomes of OPCAB were analyzed. Binary logistic regression analysis，correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic （ROC） curve were performed for statistic analysis. Results Serum cTnI level in 4-6 hours after OPCAB （TNI0） was 1.28±0.40 ng/ml，and serum cTnI level in 12-18 hours after OPCAB （TNI1） was 3.60±0.74 ng/ml. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that graft number was significant influential factors of TNI0 （P=0.000） and TNI1 （P=0.010）. Serum cTnI level in 12-18 hours after OPCAB was significantly correlated with early clinicaloutcomes of OPCAB （P＜0.05），but the correlational relationship was not b （correlation coefficient＜0.5）. ROC curveanalysis showed that serum cTnI level in 12-18 h after OPCAB had higher predictive value for patient prognosis （P＜0.05）. Serum cTnI level higher than 1.49 ng/ml in 12-18 h after OPCAB had good predictive value for postoperative ECG changes，use of intra-aortic balloon pump （IABP） and in-hospital mortality. Conclusions Serum cTnI level increases in varying degrees in the early postoperative period of OPCAB. Together with ECG changes，serum cTnI level can be used for early diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction with significant predictive value for early clinical outcomes of OPCAB.
Objective To investigate clinical outcomes and perioperative management of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting （OPCAB） for patients following acute myocardial infarction （AMI）.?Methods?From January 2006 to March 2010， 239 consecutive patients underwent OPCAB on the 14-27 （20.55±3.91） d following AMI（AMI group）in Renji Hospital，School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiaotong University. Preoperative MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase（CK-MB） level was （15.82±6.24） U/L and cardiac troponin I（cTnI） was （0.07±0.04） ng/ml. Clinical data of 406 patients without myocardial infarction history who underwent OPCAB during the same period were also collected as the control group for comparison.?Results?The 30-day mortality of AMI group was 2.51% （6/239）. The causes of death were circulatory failure in 4 patients， ischemic necrosis of lower extremity caused by intra-aortic balloon pump （IABP） in 1 patient and pneumonia with septic shock in 1 patient. Dopamine usage in AMI group was significantly higher than that of the control group （61.51% vs. 37.44%， P=0.001）. Intraoperative or postoperative IABP implantation was more common in AMI group， but there was no statistical difference between the two groups（P＞0.05） . Postoperative drainage and blood transfusion in AMI group were significantly larger than those of the control group （385.18±93.22 ml vs. 316.41±70.05 ml， P=0.022；373.68±69.54 ml vs. 289.78±43.33 ml， P=0.005， respectively）. But there was no statistical difference in re-exploration rate between the two groups （P＞0.05）. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of postoperative new onset atrial fibrillation between the two groups （P＞0.05）. Incidence of acute kidneyinjury of AMI group was significantly higher than that of the control group （13.81% vs. 8.62%， P=0.038）. Postoperative 30-day mortality of AMI group was higher than that of the control group， but there was no statistical difference between the two groups （2.51% vs. 1.48%，P＞0.05）. There was no statistical difference in ICU stay time and postoperative hospital stay between the two groups （2.01±0.95 d vs. 1.78±0.98 d；10.33±4.16 d vs. 9.89±4.52 d， respectively， P＞0.05）. A total of 211 patients （88.28%）in AMI group were followed up for 2.89±1.02 years， and 28 patients （11.72%） were lost during follow-up. Twenty-five patients died during follow-up including 14 cardiac deaths. One-year survival rate was 97.63%， and five-year survival rate was 88.15%.?Conclusion?It’s comparatively safe to perform OPCAB for patients at 2-4 weeks following AMI when their CK-MB and cTnI levels have returned to normal range.
Abstract: Objective To investigate the relationship between graft flow and incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods Between January 2010 and June 2010, 58 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease who underwent offpump CABG in the First Hospital of Peking University were enrolled in this study. An anastomosis between left internal mammary arteries (LIMA) and left ant erior descending coronary artery (LAD) were performed. And saphenous vein (SV) graft s were used as bypass grafts. Graft flow was measured intraoperatively using a transi t time flowmeter, and the total graft flow of each patient was calculated as a parameter of myocardial revascularization. The 58 patients were divided into a MI group and a nonMI group retrospectively. There were 11 patients in the MI group, including 7 males and 4 females, with an average age of 67.4±10.3 years.There were 47 patients in the nonMI group, 38 males and 9 females, with a mean age of 633±99 years. The graft flow of the two groups was tested and compared, and the preoperative variables were compared. Results There was no statistically significant difference in operation time (205.4±59.6min versus 1834±32.4 min, t=1.691, P=0.096) between the two groups. Therewere also no statistical differences in the average number of grafts (3.00±1.00 branches versus 2.96±0.78 branches, t=0.154, P=0878) or LIMALAD flow (1540±11.37 ml/min versus 16.50±10.83 ml/min, t=0.301, P=0.764) between the two groups. However, a significant difference was found in the total graft flow between the two groups (41.03±19.50 ml/min versus 64.09±32.44 ml/min, t=2.254, P=0.028), with lower total graft flow in the MI group. Further analysis showed [CM(159mm]that a total graft flow lt;48.5ml/min was a risk factor for MI (odds ratio 4.706, 95% confidence interval 1.099 to 20.147). Conclusion Total graft flow could be used to predict the occurrence of perioperative myocardial ischemia, as there is a high probability of MI for patients with a total graft flow of less than 48.5 ml/min.
Magneticaly labeled stem cells and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) technology is an effective tracking method in vivo study, which has high spatial-temporal resolution. Gadolinium, which shows positive T1 signals and iron oxide showing negative T2 signals are the two often used contrast agents. The latter also include superparamagnetic iron oxide particle and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particle. Transfection agents, e.g. poly-L-lysine and protamine sulfate，can enhance magnetical nanoparticles labeling stem cells. The biological characteristics of labeled stem cells did not seem to be altered. MRI can detect the labeled stem cells’ signals and also can track changes of signal in intensity and size with time past. In conclusion, MRI tracking magneticaly labeled stem cells represents a method for noninvasivly monitoring the existence and migration of engrafts.
Abstract: Objective To transplant the microencapsulated recombinanted Chinese hamster ovary (CHO ) cells into the infracted myocardium of rodent animals and investigate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by the implanted CHO cells could augment angiogenesis and improve cardiac function. Methods The cDNA of VEGF was transferred into CHO cells with plasmid stable transfection. After microencapsulation, the cell growth in microcapsules and the VEGF level in the culture supernatant were evaluated. Two weeks after myocardial infarction, the microencapsulated CHO cells (MC-CHO group ) were implanted into the border of infracted myocardium, as well as similar amount of CHO cells (CHO group ) , blank microcapsule (MC group ) and non-serum culture medium (control group ) as controls, 12 rats per group. The cardiac function improvement was evaluated 3 weeks after transplantation, while the survival status of implanted CHO cells, in situ secretion of VEGF and capillary density were assayed by histology. Results CHO cells could grow and proliferate after microencapsulation. The secretion of VEGF was detectable in culture media supernatant, with the highest concentration of 3 852 pg/m l at day 8. As compared to the other three groups, the left ventricular dimension and cardiac function were significantly improved in MC-CHO group 3 weeks after transplantation. The capillary density of MC-CHO group were increased significantly than those of CHO group, MC group and control group (22. 3±3. 1 vs. 15. 6±2. 8, 11. 4±2. 5, 13. 2±2. 7 vessels per 0.13 mm2, P lt; 0.05). The implanted microcapsule maintained its original shape and protected theCHO cells in it. Conclusion M icroencapsulaed recombinanted CHO cells transplantation might be a promising app roach to augment angiogenesis and improve the cardiac function in infarction myocardium.
Abstract: Objective To observe the changes in morphology, structure, and ventricular function of infarct heart after bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) implantation. Methods Twenty-four dogs were divided into four groups with random number table, acute myocardial infarction (AM I) control group , AM I-BMMNC group , old myocardial infarct ion (OMI) control group and OM I-BMMNC group , 6 dogs each group. Autologous BMMNC were injected into infarct and peri-infarct myocardium fo r transplantation in AM I-BMMNC group and OM I-BMMNC group. The same volume of no-cells phosphate buffered solution (PBS) was injected into the myocardium in AM Icontrol group and OM I-control group. Before and at six weeks of cell t ransplantation, ult rasonic cardiography (UCG) were performed to observe the change of heart morphology and function, then the heart was harvested for morphological and histological study. Results U CG showed that left ventricular end diastolic dimension (LV EDD) , left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV ) , the thickness of left ventricular postwall (LVPW ) in AM I-BMMNC group were significantly less than those in AM I-control group (32. 5±5. 1mm vs. 36. 6±3. 4mm , 46. 7±12. 1m l vs. 57. 5±10. 1m l, 6. 2±0. 6mm vs. 6. 9±0. 9mm; P lt; 0. 05). LVEDD, LVEDV , LVPW in OM I-BMMNC group were significantly less than those in OM I-control group (32. 8±4. 2 mm vs. 36. 8±4. 4mm , 48. 2±12. 9m l vs. 60.6±16.5m l, 7. 0±0. 4mm vs. 7. 3±0. 5mm; P lt; 0. 05). The value of eject fraction (EF) in OM I-BMMNC group were significantly higher than that in OM I-control group (53. 3% ±10. 3% vs. 44. 7%±10. 1% ). Compared with their control group in morphological measurement, the increase of infarct region thickness (7. 0 ± 1. 9mm vs. 5. 0 ±2.0mm , 6.0±0. 6mm vs. 4. 0±0. 5mm; P lt; 0. 05) and the reduction of infarct region length (25. 5±5. 2mm vs. 32. 1±612mm , 33. 6±5. 5mm vs. 39. 0±3. 2mm , P lt; 0. 05) were observed after transplantation in AM I-BMMNC group and OM I-BMMNC group, no ventricular aneurysm was found in AM I-BMMNC group, and the ratio between long axis and minor axis circumference of left ventricle increased in OM I-BMMNC group (0. 581±0. 013 vs. 0. 566±0.015; P lt; 0. 05). Both in AM I-BMMNC group and OM I-BMMNC group, fluorescence expressed in transplantation region was observed, the morphology of most nuclei with fluorescencew as irregular, and the differentiated cardiocyte with fluorescence was not found in myocardium after transplantation. The histological examination showed more neovascularization after transp lantation both in AMI and in OM I, and significant lymphocyte infiltration in AM I-BMMNC group. Conclusion BMMNC implantation into infarct myocardium both in AMI and OMI have a beneficial effect, which can attenuate deleterious ventricular remodeling in morphology and st ructure, and improve neovascularization in histology, and improve the heart function.