Objectives To analyze the development and implementation of the national drug policy in order to provide decision-making for the establishment of the Chinese national drug policy. Methods Nineteen electronic databases, the WHO, the World Bank, and governmental websites were included in this study. A pre-designed data extraction form was used to collect information. The data were analyzed and described by a pre-designed analytic framework. Result A total of 182 studies were included in this review. The main points of common concern in the national drug policy were: drug regulation and quality assurance, rational use of drugs, drug supply, the selection of essential drugs, human resource development and training, traditional medicine, drug financing and affordability, drug research, monitoring and assessment of the nation drug policy, technical cooperation, and the national pharmaceutical industry. The selection of essential drugs, quality assurance, supply, pricing, and supply of traditional medicine were gradually carried out in China. Pharmaceutical research, monitoring and evaluation, as well as the development of pharmaceutical industry and technical cooperation within it should be further strengthened. Conclusion China should establish related organizations and working procedures; speed up the implementation of the legislation of national drug policy; integrate the mechanism of essential drugs selection and supply system; regulate the order of medicine production and regulation; establish scientific and reasonable pricing mechanisms for drugs and assessment systems; strengthen the monitoring and evaluation of national drug policy and update and improve the national drug policy.