Objective To develop a tractive spinal cord injury model in rats with a novel spinal distractor so as to supply the rel iable animal model for researching the pathological mechanism and rehabil itation treatment of tractive spinal cordinjury. Methods A novel spinal distractor was prepared based on previous study. Sixty adult Sprague Dawley rats (weighing 250-300 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups, 12 rats in each group. T12-L3 spinal structures in the rear area were exposed and then T13-L2 spinal cords were revealed via dual laminectomy and kept integrity. In group A, a novel spinal distractor was placed without distraction; in groups B, C, D, and E, the T12-L3 spines were tracted with a novel spinal distractor which put on transverses process of T12-L3 vertebrae. During the tractive period, the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) was used to monitor spinal cord function. The SEP ampl itudes descended 50% and kept distracting for 5 minutes in group B and for 10 minutes in group C, and descended 70% and kept distracting for 5 minutes in group D and for 10 minutes in group E, respectively to establ ish the tractive spinal cord injury model of T11-L2. The improved combine behavioral score (ICBS) was recorded at 1 and 7 days after injury in 6 rats of each group. The T13-L2 spinal tissue specimens were harvested for the morphological observation by HE and Nissl’s staining and for neurons counting. Results In group A, the ICBS score was 0 at 1 and 7 days after operation, showing significant difference when compared with the scores of the other groups (P lt; 0.05). The ICBS scores of groups D and E were significantly higher than those of groups B and C (P lt; 0.05). Edema and hemorrhage were observed in spinal cord surface and normal morphological structures were destroyed at different extent in groups B, C, D, and E at 1 day. There were adherence and congestion between spinal cord surface and peripheral issue without luster at 7 days, and dura depression was observed at the injury section, especially in group E. Necrosis and dissolution occurred in some neurons, and Nissl body structure dissolved or disappeared in groups B, C, D, and E. The neuron counting gradually decreased in accordance with the aggravation of injury in groups B, C, D, and E, showing significant difference when compared with group A (P lt; 0.05). Significant differences in neuron counting were found among groups B, C, D, and E (P lt; 0.05). Conclusion The tractive spinal cord injury model in rats can be successfully establ ished with novel spinal distractor, and the model establ ished by SEP ampl itude descending 70% and keeping distracting for 10 minutes is more suitable for study in tractive spinal cord injury.
The experiment performed on domestic pig, was designed to investigate the architecture of the stretching skin and the effect of tension traction on the wound closure. An 7 cm x 3.5 cm was drawn at a standard position. Drawing horizontal and vertical lines on the traction area, points of 1 cm apart were tattooed on the lines. A traction force measuring device was used to draw the wound edges together. Measurements of the distances between the points were made. An 7 cm x 10 cm wound was made on identical sites of each hind leg. In the experiment the traction tension was applied on the edges of wound immediately after the wound debridement. The results showed the stretched distance in the two areas was 5-7 times the width of the wound. The gain of skin from traction was 61-89 percent in the width of the wound. The wounds from traction five days could be closed 5 days after traction. It was concluded that the skin which could be used for traction was abundant. Wound closure with the skin traction technique had many advantages, such as rapid decreasing the size of wound and early closing of wound.
In order to study the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of methyl-prednisolone (MP) on traction injury of spinal cord, 48 rabbits were divided into four groups randomly. According to decreasing amount of the amplitude of P1-wave, 50% reduction lasted for 5 min and 10 min with MP as experimental group, and 50% 5 min and 10 min with NS as control, the changes of amplitudes were monitored by, and the function of the spinal cord was assessed. The amounts of MDA and SOD of the spinal cord tissue were determined and the pathomorphological changes of the spinal cord were observed. The results showed that in the experimental groups, the recovery of P1-wave was quicker, the Tarlov and Molt value were decreased, the density of gray matter of the anterior horn and the myelinated nerve fiber of white matter of 100 microns diameter were higher, the SOD and MDA was decreased and the degenerative and necrotic degree of neuron and nerve fiber were milder. Where in the control groups all the above items were just on the opposite. The conclusions list as follows: the application of MP before operation of spinal deformity might prevent traction injury of the spinal cord during operative correction of spinal deformity, and could also minimized the secondary damage to spinal cord from traction injury if MP was used in time. The action to MP were summarized as improving the microcirculation, inhibiting the hyperoxidation of lipid and accelerating the recovery of SCEP.
ObjectiveTo investigate the feasibil ity and effectiveness of the modified traction arch of skull (crossbar traction arch) for skull traction in treating cervical spine injury by comparing with traditional traction arch of skull. MethodsBetween June 2009 and June 2013, 90 patients with cervical vertebrae fractures or dislocation were treated with modified skull traction surgery (trial group, n=45) and traditional skull traction surgery (control group, n=45). There was no significant difference in gender, age, injury types, injury level, the interval between injury and admission, and Frankel grading of spinal injury between 2 groups (P>0.05). The cl inical efficacy was evaluated after operation by the indexes such as traction arch sl i ppage times, operation time, the infection incidence of the pin hole, incidence of skull perforation, visual analogue scale (VAS), and reduction status of cervical dislocation. ResultsThe traction arch slippage times, the infection incidence of the pin hole, operation time, blood loss, and postoperative VAS score in trial group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of skull perforation caused by clamp crooks of traction arch between 2 groups (P=1.000). At 2 weeks after operation, the patients had no headaches, infections, or other complications in 2 groups. In patients with cervical dislocation, 4 of the trial group and 6 of the control group failed to be reset, the reduction rate was 83.33% (20/24) and 68.42% (13/19) respectively, showing no significant difference (χ2=0.618, P=0.432). ConclusionThe operation with modified traction arch of skull has significant advantages to reduce postoperative complication compared with tradition traction arch of skull.
ObjectiveTo explore the impact of different tracts on the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on complete staghorn calculus.MethodsPatients with complete staghorn calculus who underwent single channel PCNL by the same surgeon in West China Hospital of Sichuan University from October 2009 to August 2019 were included. The removing time, the rate of immediate stone removal, the average extubating time, and the incidences of postoperate complications such as fever and bleeding were analyzed statistically.ResultsA total of 379 patients were included. There were 146 cases in the upper tract group, 170 cases in the lower tract group and 63 cases in the middle tract group. Compared with the upper and middle tract groups, the lower tract group had shorter stone removing time [(50.34±18.52) vs. (53.41±22.75) vs. (41.79±17.45) min, P<0.001], shorter average extubating time [(5.53±1.83) vs. (6.17±1.44) vs. (4.96±1.91) d, P=0.007]. The rate of immediate stone removal was higher in the the upper tract group (40.56% vs. 32.79% vs. 34.71% ), but there was no statistical difference among the three groups (P=0.447). There was no significant difference among the three groups in the fever incidence (25.44% vs. 24.24% vs. 26.85%, P=0.938) or bleeding incidence (3.54% vs. 3.03% vs. 4.03%, P=1.000). In addition, there were 8 cases of pleural injury in the upper tract group.ConclusionsCompared with the lower and middle tract, PCNL with upper tract has a higher rate of removing stones for complete staghorn calculus, but there was no significant difference among the three groups. The incidences of bleeding and fever after surgery are similar in the three groups, but the risk of pleural injury may be increased in the upper tract group.