【Abstract】 Objective To research the method and effectiveness of V-Y advancement of skin flap pedicled with the upper limb lateral branch in the treatment of small skin defect in the dorsal elbow. Methods Between March 2008 and August 2010, 6 cases of skin defect in the dorsal elbow were treated by V-Y advancement of skin flap pedicled with the upper limb lateral branch, including 4 males and 2 females with a mean age of 53 years (range, 16-76 years). Defects were caused by crushing in 3 cases, by punching in 2 cases, and the disease duration was 4 hours 30 minutes to 7 days (mean, 29.5 hours); and by chronic infection in 1 case, and the disease duration was 12 months. The defect size ranged from 4.0 cm × 2.5 cm to 9.5 cm × 3.5 cm, all complicating by bone or tendon exposure. The flap size ranged from 6.0 cm × 4.0 cm to 12.5 cm × 9.5 cm; the donor sites were sutured directly. Results All flaps survived completely, wounds and incisions at donor sites healed by first intention. Six cases were followed up 6-12 months after operation. The flaps had good texture and color. Two-point discrimination of the skin flap was 12-16 mm. The function of limb was normal, and elbow flexion and extension activity averaged 105° (range, 95-125°). Conclusion It is ideal to treat small skin defect in the dorsal elbow with V-Y advancement of skin flap pedicled with the upper limb lateral branch because of easier operation and less injury at donor site.
ObjectiveTo evaluate the effectiveness of the upper limb free flap for repair of severe contracture of thumb web, and one stage reconstruction of the index finger abduction. MethodsBetween March 2007 and June 2011, 16 cases of severe contracture of thumb web and index finger abduction dysfunction were treated. There were 14 males and 2 females with an average age of 29 years (range, 16-42 years). All injuries were caused by machine crush. The time between injury and admission was 6-24 months (mean, 10 months). The angle of thumb web was 10-25° (mean, 20°), and the width of thumb web was 15-24 mm (mean, 22 mm). After scar relax of the thumb web, the defect size ranged from 6 cm × 4 cm to 8 cm × 6 cm; the upper limb free flap from 7 cm × 5 cm to 9 cm × 7 cm was used to repair the defect, index finger abduction was simultaneously reconstructed by extensor indicis proprius tendon transfer. The donor site was repaired with skin grafting. ResultsAll the flaps and skin graftings survived after operation and incisions healed by first intention. Fourteen patients were followed up 6-12 months (mean, 9 months). The flap appearance was satisfactory. The two-point discrimination was 6-9 mm (mean, 7 mm) after 6 months. The angle of thumb web was 85-90° (mean, 88°). The width of thumb web was 34-52 mm (mean, 40 mm). The abduction and opposing functions of thumb and abduction function of index finger were both recovered. Conclusion A combination of the upper limb free flap for severe contracture of thumb web and one stage reconstruction of the index finger abduction for index finger abduction dysfunction can achieve good results in function and appearance.
Objective To evaluate the long-term function of the traumaticallydamaged joint after its repair with transplantation of a fresh or a frozen allogenic joint. Methods From March 1977 to September 1993, 13 patients (9 males, 4females; age, 17-55 years) with traumatically-damaged joints underwent transplantation of the fresh or the frozen allogenic joints. Five patients had 5 damagedmetacarpophalangeal joints, 6 patients had 9 damaged interphalangeal joints, and 2 patients had 2 damaged elbow joints. So, the traumatic damage involved 13 patients and 16 joints. All the metacarpophalangeal joints and the interphalangeal joints were injured by machines and the 2 elbow joints were injured by road accidents. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group A (n=7) andGroup B (n=6). The 7patients with 8 joints in Group A underwent transplantation of fresh allogenic joints; the 6 patients with 8 joints in Group B underwent transplantation of frozen allogenic joints. The allogenic joint transplants were performed in the period from immediately after the injuries to 6 months after the injuries. The motion ranges of the transplanted joints and the X-ray films were examined after operation, and the immunological examination was performed at 8 weeksafter operation. Results The time for synostosis was 5-8 months in Group A, but4-6 months in Group B. In Group A, at 2 years after operation the metacarpophalangeal flexion was 30-40° and the interphalangeal flexion was 20-30°; however,at 6 or 7 years after operation the interphalangeal flexion was only 10-20°. The patients undergoing the transplantation with fresh elbow joints had the elbowflexion of 60° and the elbow extension of 0°, and had the forearm pronation of 30°and the forearm supination of 30°. But in Group B, at 2 years after operation the metacarpophalangeal flexion was 6070° and the interphalangeal flexionwas 40-50°; at 6 or 7 years after operation the interphalangeal flexion was still 40-50°. However, the patients undergoing the transplantation with frozen elbow joints had the elbow flexion of 90° and the elbow extension of 0°, and hadthe forearm pronation of 45° and a forearm supination of 45°. The joint motion ranges, the Xray findings, and the immunological results in the patients undergoing the transplantation of the frozen allogenic joints were significantly better than those in the patients undergoing the transplantation of fresh allogenicjoints. There was a significant difference in the immunological examination between Group A and Group B (IL2, 21.64±3.99；CD4/CD8,3.88±0.82 vs.IL-2,16.63±3.11；CD4/CD8, 2.53±0.23, P＜0.01). Conclusion Repairing the traumatically-damaged joints with frozen allogenic joints is a better method of regaining the contour, movement, and complex motion of the hands.
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical result of treating firearm-wound with the vessel pedicel tissue flap. METHODS: From May 1992 to October 2000, 21 cases of firearm-wound of upper limbs underwent transplantation with the vessel pedicel tissue flap. Of them, the locations of the wound were upper arm in 11 cases, forearm in 7 cases, hand in 3 cases. The size of wound was 1.0 cm x 0.5 cm to 8.0 cm x 6.5 cm; the wound course was 3 minutes to 8 hours with an average of 3 hours and 30 minutes. The patients were followed up 3 months to 2 years. RESULTS: In 21 cases, the results were excellent in 19 cases and poor in 2 cases. The good rate was 90.5%. CONCLUSION: Treatment of firearm-wound with vessel pedicel tissue flap has the good effect.
ObjectiveTo explore the feasibility and the practical value of conserving upper limb lymph nodes in axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for early breast cancer. MethodsFrom August 2007 to January 2010, 124 patients with early breast cancer were studied and divided into two phases: phase one, from August 2007 to July 2008; phase two, from August 2008 to January 2010. Five milliliter of methylene blue was injected subcutaneously in ipsilateral forearm in all the patients before operation to locate the upper limb lymph nodes. Routine ALND was performed in 22 patients of phase one. The level Ⅱ lymph nodes and the upper limb lymph nodes were separated from the axillary lymph nodes, respectively. The lymph nodes of level Ⅱ were investigated by combining touch cytology with frozen section during operation. The lymph nodes of level Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and the upper limb lymph nodes were investigated postoperatively by routine pathological examination to evaluate the feasibility of conserving the upper limb lymph nodes. One hundred and two patients in phase two were divided randomly by lottery into control group (30 cases), and conserving group (72 cases) in which upper limb lymph nodes were selectively conserved. The surgical procedure for control group was same as the phase one blue stained upper limb lymph nodes, in the conserving group were conserved selectively when the lymph nodes metastasis of level Ⅱ were not detected by combining touch cytology with frozen section during operation. The data were collected and analysed on pathological results of all patients and arm circumference was compared between control group and conserving group. Results Total 119 of 124 patients (96.0%) were found with blue stained upper limb lymph nodes. The concordance rate was 99.2% (123/124) between the intraoperative combining pathological method and the postoperative routine pathological examination. No upper limb lymph node metastasis was found in the phase one and the control group of phase two with level Ⅱ group negative. The incidence of arm lymphedema in the control group and the conserving group with level Ⅰ and Ⅱ lymph nodes dissection was 18.2% （4/22） and 20% （1/51）, respectively on 6 months after operation. The difference was statistically significant （χ 2=6,34， Plt;0.05）. ConclusionsMethylene blue being injected subcutaneously in ipsilateral upper limb can be used to show validly lymph nodes of upper limb in the axillary region. ALND with selectively conserving upper limb lymph nodes when level Ⅱ lymph nodes negative in metastasis, can prevent postoperative arm lymphedema.
Objective To study the effects of partial axillary lymph node dissection (PALD) on prognosis and upper limb function in patients with breast cancer. Methods Ninety-eight breast cancer patients with stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ were randomly divided into two groups and different surgical procedures following modified mastectomy were performed: partial axillary lymph node (level Ⅰ and Ⅱ) dissection (PALD) group (n=48) and total axillary lymph node (levelⅠ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ) dissection (TALD) group (n=50). The longterm positive relapse rate and upper limb function between 2 groups were compared. Results During the follow-up of 5 to 10 years (average 4.5 years), there were 2 cases (4.2%) of local recurrence on chest wall and one case (2.1%) of recurrence in axillary lymph node and one case (2.1%) of recurrence in supraclavicular lymph node in PALD group, and 2 cases (4.0%) of local recurrence on chest wall and no axillary lymph node recurrence and one case (2.0%) of recurrence in supraclavicular lymph node happened in TALD group. There was no statistical difference between PALD group and TALD group (Pgt;0.05). The incidence of upper limb edema and dysfunction was 4.2% (2/48) in PALD group and 16.0%(8/50) in TALD group (P＜0.01). There was no significant statistical difference of 5year and 10year survival rate between PALD group and TALD group (89.6% vs. 88.0%， 79.2% vs. 78.0%，Pgt;0.05). Conclusion PALD may reduce upper limb dysfunction after operation in patients with stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ breast cancer, and does not increase prognostic risk.
ObjectiveTo explore the effectiveness of the dissociative saphenous arteria flap in repairing upper limbs soft tissue defect. MethodsBetween June 2012 and April 2014, 10 cases of skin and soft tissue defects at the upper limbs were treated, including 6 males and 4 females with an average age of 42 years (range, 23-58 years). The causes of injury was the machine injury in 9 cases, the interval of injury and operation was 2 hours to 32 days (mean, 5.5 days); the locations were the dorsal radial side in 3 cases and the dorsal forearm in 6 cases. Skin defect with tendon exposure was observed in 1 case after contracture of the first web space resection. The defect size varied from 5 cm×3 cm to 16 cm×9 cm. The size of the flaps ranged from 6.0 cm×3.6 cm to 19.2 cm×10.8 cm. In 7 cases, the saphenous nerve was anastomosed with the nerve of the donor (cutaneous nerve, radial nerve, or ulnar nerve); in 5 cases, tendon defect was repaired by sartorius muscle tendon bridge. The donor sites were repaired by free skin graft or suture. ResultsThe other flaps survived and obtained healing by first intention except 1 flap which had partial necrosis with healing by second intention. The skin graft at donor site survived. All patients were followed up 5-17 months (mean, 12 months). The flaps had good color and texture without contracture. At last follow-up, the sensation recovered to S1-S3+; in 7 cases undergoing nerve anastomosis, the sensation reached S3-S3+, and it was better than that not undergoing nerve anastomosis (S1-S2); in 5 cases receiving sartorius muscle tendon bridging, the hand function recovered satisfactorily except 1 case of total active movement (TAM) value >75% of contralateral TAM at last follow-up. According to the Chinese Medical Society of Hand Surgery function evaluation standards, the results were excellent in 8 cases and good in 2 cases. ConclusionThe dissociative saphenous arteria flap is an effective way to repair skin defects of the upper limbs because of reliable blood supply and simple surgical procedure.
ObjectivesTo investigate the influence of the abduction angle of the upper extremities on the image quality of non-enhanced CT scan and clinical value of the patients who cannot lift with double upper limbs by vehicle accident.Methods60 patients with double upper limbs that could not lift by vehicle accidents were required to receive liver non-enhanced CT scan, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to the abduction angle (group A, B, C), 20 cases in each group, another 20 cases with standard pose as the control group (group D). The CT value and standard deviation of the liver region of interest, the erector and the background air were measured, and the contrast to noise ratio of liver images, image noise value were calculated, together with the assessment of image quality and statistic analysis.ResultsThe liver non-enhanced CT scan were completed successfully. The image quality of group D was significantly better than A, B, C (Z=–10.753, P<0.05;Z=–11.645, P<0.05;Z=–12.281, P<0.05), respectively. Group C was better than A and B (Z=–8.502, P<0.05;Z=–4.068, P<0.05), respectively. Group B was better than A (Z=–5.885, P<0.05). The CNR of the four groups of images increased gradually, group A (0.09±0.77), group B (1.56±0.83), group C (2.51±0.87), group D (2.59±0.97), respectively. There were significant differences between four groups (F=36.323, P<0.05). The image noise decreased systematically, group A (14.84±2.94), group B (13.04±1.59), group C (11.60±1.72), group D (10.44±1.13), respectively. There were significant differences between four groups (H=426.755, P<0.05).ConclusionOn the premise of safety inspection, with the enlargement of angle of the upper limbs of patients who cannot lift with double upper limbs by vehicle accidents, the image noise decreased and image quality is improved with the increase of signal noise ratio.
Objective To explore the effect of " closed-loop rehabilitation”-based digital mirror therapy (MT) on the recovery of upper limb function after stroke. Methods Between December 2017 and April 2018, 90 stroke patients were recruited and randomly assigned to digital MT group (MG) or conventional group (CG), with 45 in each group. Patients in MG received digital MT for 60 minutes and subsequent hand function rehabilitation for 30 minutes, which was a " closed-loop rehabilitation”; moreover, patients in CG received therapeutic exercises, occupational therapy, and hand function rehabilitation for 30 minutes separately (totally 90 minutes). Both interventions were daily provided, 5 days per week and lasting for 4 weeks. Clinical assessments were provided before and after the interventions, including the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Limb (FAM_UL) for motor function evaluation, the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) for the activities of daily life (ADL) evaluation, and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) for the spasticity of wrist extensor/flexor. Results Five patients did not complete the study (3 in MG and 2 in CG), so there were totally 85 subjects analysed in the end. After 4-week interventions, significant improvements of FMA_UL scores (Pre: MG, 25.86±17.41; CG, 21.71±15.60. Post: MG, 33.43±17.08; CG, 26.48±16.47) and MBI scores (Pre: MG, 66.62±21.73; CG, 59.14±21.58. Post: MG, 84.62±15.06; CG, 71.10±19.95) were found in both groups; moreover, higher scores of FMA_UL and MBI were investigated in MG comparing with CG after interventions. However, there were no significantly differences in MAS. Conclusions The " closed-loop rehabilitation”-based digital MT can improve the motor function of upper limb and the ability of ADL in patients with stroke. Moreover, it is more effective than conventional treatments.
ObjectiveTo explore the clinical effect of the end-traction upper limb rehabilitation training system on patients with upper limb motor dysfunction after stroke.MethodsPatients with upper limb motor dysfunction who were admitted to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from September to November 2019 were selected. According to the software, the patients were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group. Both groups received conventional medical treatment, basic rehabilitation, and activities of daily living training. In addition, the control group received traditional occupational therapy, while the experimental group received end-traction upper limb rehabilitation training. The training time of both groups was 30 min/ (times ·d) and 5 days per week. Rehabilitation evaluation and recording were performed before and after the four-week treatment in both groups using the simplified upper extremity Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and the modified Barthel index (MBI).ResultsA total of 36 patients were enrolled, with 18 in each group. All patients completed the experiment, and no special discomfort was observed. Before the treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in FMA and MBI between the experimental group [(13.22±3.13) and (49.66±6.81) points] and the control group [(14.78±1.70) and (51.67±6.65) points] (t=1.858, 0.896; P=0.072, 0.377). After four-week treatment, FMA and MBI in both groups improved significantly (P<0.05); the difference between the experimental group [(27.56±15.68) and (73.55±8.72) points] and the control group [(17.67±6.73) and (65.33±9.20) points] was statistically significant (t=2.459, 2.751; P=0.019, 0.009).ConclusionsThe end-traction upper limb rehabilitation training system can significantly improve the upper limb motor function of patients with upper limb motor dysfunction after stroke and improve the patients’ daily life ability. It is worthy of clinical promotion and application.