The WinBUGS software can be called from either R (provided R2WinBUGS as an R package) or Stata software for network meta-analysis. Unlike R, Stata software needs to create relevant ADO scripts at first which simplify operation process greatly. Similar with R, Stata software also needs to load another package when drawing network plots. This article briefly introduces how to implement network meta-analysis using Stata software by calling WinBUGS software.
Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics and mechanisms of ocular manifestations related to carotid artery stenosis. Methods The general clinic data and related ocular manifestations in 124 patients with carotid artery stenosis were retrospectively. Results In the 124 patients, 36 (29%) had ocular manifestations, and 28 (22. 6 %) complained the ocular discomfort as the first symptom. Among the 36 patients, 31 patients (86.1%) had been disclosed unilateral or double stenosis of internal carotid artery by carotid Doppler ultrasound examination, and the result of digital subtract angiography revealed middle and severe degree of internal carotid artery stenosis in 8 and 23 patients respectively. There was no statistic difference of incidence of ocular manifestations between 67 patients of severe internal carotid artery stenosis and 34 patients with middle one（chi;２test,P =0.266 2，P＞0.05). The ocular manifestations included amaurosis fugax (52.8%),acute decline or loss of the visual ability and defect of visual fields (36.1%), binocular diplopia (13.9%), ptosis (13.9%), and persistent high intraocular pressure(2.8%) one patient might had several ocular manifestations simultaneously. In 36 patients, central retinal artery occlusion had been diagnosed in 4, venous stasis retinopathy in 1,central or branch retinal vein occlusion in 6, neovascular glaucoma in 1, and anterior ischemic opticneuropathy in 2. One patient with double occlusion of internal carotid artery didnrsquo;t have any ocular manifestation. Conclusion Carotid artery stenosis, especially internal carotid artery may lead to acute or chronic ocular ischemic lesions, and the occurrence of ocular manifestations in chronic ocular ischemic lesions relates to compensa tion of collateral circulation；patients with ocular ischemic lesions are recomm end to undergo a routine carotid artery examination. (Chin J Ocul Fundus Dis, 2006,22:376-378)
ObjectivesTo evaluate the effects of Q-syte separating film needleless closed transfusion connector in flushing chamber of three-cavity urethral catheter.MethodsTo retrospectively analyze the patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor for non muscle-invasive bladder cancer from January 2015 to July 2016 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University. After terminating the continuous bladder irrigation, the observed group used Q-syte separating film needleless closed transfusion connector to seal the flushing chamber of three-cavity urethral catheter, and control group used conditional approach to connect drainage bag. The degree of comfort and satisfaction of patients, urinary tract infection, time of stopping bladder irrigation and bladder perfusion time between two groups were assessed.ResultsA total of 88 patients were included involving 63 (72%) males and 25 (28%) females with a mean age of 60.2±4.7 years. There were no significant differences between two groups in age, gender, BMI, and complications (P>0.05). Compared to control group, case group had higher level of comfort degree (mild discomfort: 86.4% vs. 25.0%, P<0.001; moderate discomfort: 13.6% vs. 52.3%, P<0.001; severe discomfort: 0.0% vs. 22.7%, P=0.001), satisfaction degree (97.9±2.1 vs. 84.5±3.9, P<0.001), and lower rates of urinary tract infection (11.4% vs. 29.5%, P=0.034). In addition, the case group spent shorter time in terminating bladder irrigation (50.48±1.78 vs. 207.74±5.41, P<0.001) and bladder perfusion (141.47±3.25 vs. 205.35±5.17, P<0.001). All differences were statistical significance.ConclusionsApplication of Q-syte separating film needleless closed transfusion connector for sealing flushing chamber of three-cavity urethral catheter after continuous bladder irrigation could promote the degree of comfort and satisfaction of patients, and decrease the rate of urinary tract infection, as well as the working efficiency of health care professionals.
Evidence is the core of Evidence-Based Medcine; the Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE System) is a milestone in the history of evidence development. This paper outlines the GRADE System and GRADEpro 3.2 software, and briefly explores the right and wrong application which was published in the Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine. The GRADEpro 3.2 software is easy to operate, but for evaluating the reasons of upgrade and downgrade, and the importance of the parameters of outcomes, it needs to comprehensively and systematically understand the knowledge of relevant background, and to construct a solid foundation in clinical epidemiology and systematic review. In view of this paper based on the current GRADE System, there may be some discrepancy to the later content with the GRADE System constant improvement. Therefore, it is bly recommended that readers should keep constant learning and improving.
ObjectiveTo evaluate the effectiveness of the leverage reduction with proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) ball head screw driver for difficult-reducing intertrochanteric fracture.MethodsThe clinical data of 8 patients with difficult-reducing intertrochanteric fractures between July 2015 and February 2018 were retrospectively analysed. There were 3 males and 5 females, aged 66-89 years, with an average age of 76.3 years. According to Evans classification, there were 3 cases of type Ⅲ and 5 cases of type Ⅳ. The time from injury to operation was 2-8 days (mean, 3.9 days). All patients were reducted with ball head screw driver leverage through PFNA proximal incision during operation. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, reduction time, and fluoroscopy times were recorded. Harris hip function score was used to evaluate the effectiveness at last follow-up.ResultsThe operation time was 52.5-83.7 minutes (mean, 68.1 minutes), the intraoperative blood loss was 49.8-96.4 mL (mean, 73.1 mL), the reduction time was 3.7-9.1 minutes (mean, 6.4 minutes), and the fluoroscopy times were 18.4-27.4 times (mean, 22.9 times). Patients were followed up 6-18 months (mean, 9.6 months). Postoperative X-ray films showed that the fracture obtained good reduction. No fracture displacement, fixation failure, and coxa vara occurred after operation. Fracture healing time was 3-6 months (mean, 4.6 months). At last follow-up, the Harris hip function score was 85-96 (mean, 91.6), with a result of excellent in 6 cases and good in 2 cases.ConclusionThe reduction of difficult-reducing intertrochanteric fracture by using ball head screw driver can obtain good reduction and reliable fixation. The method has such advantages as no more incision, and less blood loss and soft tissue injury.
Objective To objectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of plasmakinetic enucleation for prostate (PKEP) vs plasmakinetic resection for prostate (PKRP) in treating benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Methods Such databases as PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMbase, the ISI Web of Knowledge databases, VIP, CNKI, CBM and Wanfang were searched from their establishment to March 2011 for collecting the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about PKEP vs PKRP for the treatment of BPH, and the references of those RCTs were also searched by hand. After study selection, assessment and data extraction conducted by two reviewers independently, meta-analyses were performed by using the RevMan 5.1 software. The level of evidence was assessed by using the GRADE system. Results Eight studies involving 991 patients were included. The results of meta-analyses showed that: a) safety indicator: compared with the PKRP, PKEP had shorter operation time (SMD=1.07, 95%CI 0.19 to 1.94, P=0.02), less intraoperative bleeding (SMD=2.06, 95%CI 1.42 to 2.69, Plt;0.01), much quantity of resectable prostate (SMD= –0.91, 95%CI –1.33 to –0.48, Plt;0.000 1), less intraoperative perforation (RR=4.48, 95%CI 1.43 to 14.02, P=0.01), shorter catheterization time (SMD=1.98, 95%CI 0.39 to 3.57, P=0.01), shorter bladder irrigation time (SMD=3.49, 95%CI 0.51 to 6.47, P=0.02) and shorter hospital stay (SMD=0.89, 95%CI 0.64 to 1.13, Plt;0.01), but there was no significant difference in total postoperative complications (RR=0.82, 95%CI 0.54 to 1.24, P=0.35); and b) efficacy indicator: compared with the PKRP, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was lower after 3 months, the Quality Of Life (QOL) was higher after 3 months, and the improvement of residual urine volume (RUV) was better after 6 months; but other efficacy indicators had no significant difference between the two groups (Pgt;0.05). Based on GRADE system, all the evidence was at level C and weak recommendation (2C). Conclusion The current evidence indicates that PKEP is similar to PKRP in the treating effect, but it resects the proliferated prostate more cleanly with shorter operation time, lesser bleeding and more safety than PKRP; for the poor quality of the original studies, a prudent choice is suggested; and more high-quality, large-sample studies are need.
Objective To detect the false-positive results of cumulative meta-analyses of Cochrane Urology Group with the trial sequential analysis (TSA). Methods The systematic reviews of Urology Group of The Cochrane Library were searched to collect meta-analyses with positive results. Two researchers independently screened literature and extracted data of included meta-analyses. Then, TSA was performed using TSA software version 0.9 beta. Results A total of 11 meta-analyses were included. The results of TSA showed that, 8 of 11 (72.7%) meta-analyses were potentially false-positive results for failing to surpass the trial sequential monitoring boundary and to reach the required information size. Conclusion TSA can help researchers to identify the false-positive results of meta-analyses.
Dose-response meta-analysis is being increasingly applied in evidence production and clinical decision. The research method, synthesizing certain dose-specific effects across studies with the same target question by a certain types of weighting schedule to get a mean dose-response effect, is to reflect the dose-response relationship between certain exposure and outcome. Currently, the most popular method for dose-response meta-analysis is based on the classical "two-stage approach", with the advantage that it allows fixed- or random-effect model, according to the amount of heterogeneity in the model. There are two types of random-effect model available for dose-response meta-analysis, that is, the generally model and the coefficient-correlation-adjusted model. In this article, we briefly introduce two models and illustrate how they are applied in Stata software, which is expected to provide theoretical foundation for evidence-based practice.
Objectives To evaluate the methodological quality of published clinical practice guidelines for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, WanFang Data, VIP and CBM databases, website of Yimaitong, and international authoritative guide platforms were electronically searched to collect the relevant clinical practice guidelines or consensus for benign prostate hyperplasia. The retrieval covered the time up to December 13th, 2016. Literatures were independently screened by 2 reviewers. After data extraction, the methodological quality of included guidelines was evaluated by 4 reviewers using the AGREE Ⅱ. Each domain score was calculated and the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the consistency among the reviewers. Results A total of 15 clinical practice guidelines were included. The mean scores for the six domains in AGREE Ⅱ were: 72%, 38%, 30%, 58%, 16%, and 40%, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient was larger than 0.87, which indicated the total consistency was well. Conclusions The quality of clinical practice guidelines for benign prostatic hyperplasia is not satisfactory as expected. They are heterogeneous in quality and some requires improvement. Guidelines are required to be further developed in methodology in future, especially in three domains, including participants, preciseness and applicability of the design.
Objective To investigate the disease constitution of Yaqian Township Health Center (YQT) in Xiaoshan District of Zhejiang Province from 2008 to 2010, so as to provide baseline data for further study. Methods Questionnaire and focus interview were carried out to collect inpatients’ case records from 2008 to 2010. The first diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10, and the data of discharge diagnoses were rearranged and analyzed by using Excel 2003 and SPSS 13.0 software. Results a) The total numbers of inpatients were 182, 195 and 248 from 2008 to 2010, respectively; b) The disease spectrum included 9-14 categories, which accounted for 47.6%-66.7% of ICD-10; c) The top 6 systematic diseases accounted for 37.37%-75.39%, which included the circulatory, injury, digestive, respiratory, neoplasms and urinary and reproductive systematic diseases; d) A total of 8 of the top 15 single diseases were the same, including hypertension, great saphenous vein varices, redundant prepuce, lung cancer, fracture, superficial injuries, acute appendicitis, and inguinal hernia; and e) The constitution ratio of the chronic diseases, compared with the acute ones, was higher in 2008, but lower in 2009 and 2010. Conclusion a) In recent three years, the main systematic diseases seen in YQT have been circulatory, injury, digestive, respiratory, neoplasms, and urinary and reproductive systematic diseases. The newly increased diseases in 2010 were pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium. The acute diseases mainly are fracture and injure, while the chronic diseases mostly are hypertension; b) A total of 8 of the top 15 single diseases are the same, indicating the stability of the common inpatients’ diseases; and c) Attention should be paid in future to the chronic diseases management, women’s health and specialized subject construction.