The West China hospital of Sichuan university has underwent four times emergency medical rescue (EMR) of earthquakes, measuring 5.7 Ms to 8.0 Ms on the Richter scale, happened at Wenchuan, Yushu, Yiliang and Lushan in recent 5 years, which gradually improved and supplemented Wenchuan experience. After Lushan earthquake, a total of 392 patients were received during 2 weeks. Among 321 hospitalized patients, there were 39 (12.15%) patients with critical injury and 14 (4.36%) patients who needed intensive care. 184 operations were performed. Based on the experiences of resource centralization, multidisciplinary cooperation, and hierarchical management, zero death, a new medical record, has been achieved among 43 patients with critical injury after centralized admission and treatment. A total of 12 medical rescue teams involving 88 healthcare workers were sent to the epicenter to join and guide EMR. Besides, rehabilitation and psychological experts came to Lushan on the first day of earthquake, and started clinical intervention of mental and physical health for people needed on the second day.
Objective To provide baseline date for further research by retrospectively investigating the disease constitution of over-60-year old patients in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University in 2011. Methods The information of over-60-year old outpatients was extracted from HIS and their diagnoses were classified by ICD-10. The data of single disease among top 3 categories of diseases were rearranged and analyzed by Excel software. Results The total of over-60-year old outpatients was 895 123 person-time in 2011, accounting for 19.65%, including 716 826 person-time in specialist outpatient clinics. The specialist diagnoses of 683 491 person-time could be classified by ICD-10, accounting for 95.35% of specialist outpatients. The top 12 diseases were neoplasm, circulatory, digestive, factors influencing health status and contacting with health services, respiratory, musculoskeletal system and connective tissues, nervous, eyes, symptoms/signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, non-classified, mental and behavioral disorders, endocrine, and genitourinary system diseases, and the cumulative constituent ratio was 92.96%. The main pathogenic sites of neoplasm were bronchus and lung (21.98%), esophagus (8.66%), stomach (8.10%), rectum (7.37%), prostate (5.86%), and liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (5.55%), with a cumulative constituent ratio of 57.72%. The main disease burden in circulatory system was hypertension (39.50%), chronic ischaemic heart disease (11.17%), and cerebral infarction (9.70%), and the cumulative constituent ratio was 60.38%. While the main disease burden in digestive system was gastritis and duodenitis (24.98%), other diseases of digestive system (9.26%), and other diseases of liver (8.90%), and the cumulative constituent ratio was 43.13%. There were more female than male among the over-60-year old outpatients (50.67% vs. 49.33%), and male was higher than female only in the incidence of neoplasm, respiratory, factors influencing health status and contacting with health services, and genitourinary system diseases. The disease constitution ratio of 60-69 years old patients was 58.21%. The top 3 neoplasm were the malignant tumors in digestive (38.20%), respiratory and intrathoracic organs (24.70%), and lymphoid, haematopoietic and related tissue (11.97%), with a cumulative constituent ratio of 74.87%. Conclusion The top 3 disease burden of over-60-year old outpatients in West China Hospital were neoplasm, circulatory and digestive diseases, which reflects the trend and law of treatment demands of old patients. It needs to deeply analyze the frequency and flow pattern of patients, and to provide evidence for preventing and treating geriatric diseases.
Objective To collect and analyze the data of emergency medicine supply for both Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes victims in the West China Hospital, so as to provide evidence for scientifically and efficiently carrying out the logistical support for emergency rescue medicines supply, and improving the coping capacity for those similar public health emergencies. Methods Both medicine constituent ratios and DDDs were taken as evaluation indexes, and the data were input by Excel software. Then the following items were analyzed: the use and cost of emergency medicine for victims admitted in the hospital from one day to one month after earthquake, as well as, the acceptance, allocation and use of the donation medicines for both Wenchuan and Lusan earthquakes. Results During the first month after Lushan earthquake, the victims used 26 categories of medicines involving 455 drug specifications in the West China Hospital. The dosage and DDDs of therapeutic medicines were higher than those of ancillary medicines. The donation medicines for Lushan earthquake accepted by the hospital were in 8 categories involving 16 drug specifications, and they were all used to rescue the victims in the hospital. Based on the hospital emergency medicine supply system oriented by the information of victim’s medicine use, the drug specification and total drug cost of the donation medicines for Lushan earthquake decreased by 90.91% and 89.73%, respectively, indicating a more accurate and efficient system compared with those for Wenchuan earthquake. Conclusion The implementation of the hospital emergency medicine supply system oriented by the information of victim’s medicine use is helpful to improve the time efficiency and pertinence of earthquake medical rescue.
Objective To systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of China-made omeprazole in treating acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods Such databases as PubMed, MEDLINE, Springer, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, CBM and WanFang data were searched to collect the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about China-made omeprazole in treating acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and the references of included studies were also retrieved. The retrieval time was from inception to December 2012. Two reviewers independently screened the literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted the data, and assessed the quality, and then the meta-analysis was conducted by using RevMan 5.1 software. Results A total of 11 RCTs were included. Among all 1 075 patients, 544 were in the treatment group, while the other 531 were in the control group. The results of meta-analysis showed that, there were no significant differences in the total effective rate (OR=0.68, 95%CI 0.35 to 1.33, P=0.26) and safety (RR=1.33, 95%CI 0.45 to 3.91, P=0.96) between the China-made omeprazole and imported omeprazole. Conclusion China-made omeprazole is effective and safe in treating acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in comparison with the imported omeprazole.
Objective To analyze the costs of emergency medication in the West China Hospital within one month after Lushan earthquake based on actual medication of the victims’ disease spectrum. Methods We collected emergency medication data as evaluation index in the West China Hospital within one month after Lushan earthquake, including daily cost, cumulative percentage of pharmacology category, average cost per day/person, average cost per day/person when DUI=1, difference between average cost per day /person, and average cost per day/person when DUI=1, etc. Then, we input data using Excel software for statistically analyzing the costs of emergency medication within one month after the earthquake. Results During one month after the earthquake, the costs changed consistently with the number of victims, which implied the change of costs was rational. Injuries were classified into 6 categories and 12 kinds according to ICD-10. The costs of medication accounted for 71% of the total costs. Six kinds of illness accounted for 21%. Medication for injuries was classified into 3 categories and 18 kinds; average cost per day was 186.87 yuan and average cost per person was 1 702.70 yuan. Medication for illness was classified into 5 categories and 28 kinds; average cost per day was 38.96 yuan and average cost per person was 185.13 yuan. The mean value of average cost per day/person of injection was 14.52/5.08 times more than that of non-injection. Meanwhile, the mean value of average cost per day/person of imported medication was 7.10/5.28 times more than that of domestic medication. Conclusion The factors that impact the medication costs include: a) disease burden and traumatic conditions of the sick and wound; b) administration pathway (injection vs. non-injection); c) imported or domestic medication; and d) the rationality of taking DUI as evaluation index. When DUIgt;1, injection through the vein and imported medication take a larger share which increase the costs of medication. Emergency rescue package should mainly prepare for the injury. In order to ensure the timely, safe and effective medication, injection should be given priority to. We also should take into consideration crash-resistance/anti-quake package, reasonable dosage, convenience-to-use of drugs as well as the needs of the illness.
Objective To analyze the rationality of emergency medication in the West China Hospital after Lushan earthquake based on the actual drug use of earthquake victims. Methods We applied DDDs and DUI as evaluation index, input data using Excel software, and analyzed if the emergency medication was required for the injury/illness and the rationality of emergency medication. Results Earthquake victims mainly had trauma and wound infection and they were given antibiotics as main treatment one week after the earthquake. Drugs for the respiratory system and digestive system were mainly used in patients who mainly manifested as non-traumatic diseases and internal diseases four weeks after the earthquake. Among 49 kinds of drugs which could be calculated for the value of DUI, injection accounted for a larger proportion than non-injection (59.18% vs. 40.82%). The results showed that, the medication (DUI=1) only accounted for 12.24%; the medication (DUIlt;1, Mean=0.65) accounted for 38.78%, which implied insufficient drug use; the medication (DUIgt;1, Mean=1.77) accounted for 46.94%, which implied drug overuse. Conclusion Medication for every system is basically timely and rational when treating symptoms and causes in the West China Hospital within one month after Lushan earthquake. However, the rationality of emergency medications using DUI=1 under normal conditions still needs to be further verified.
Objective To evaluate the quality of randomized controlled trials in otorhinolaryngology in China and provide to comprehend the possibility of its contribution in providing reliable, evidence in clinical practice; thus providing evidence to elevate the clinical treatment level. Methods Five Chinese clinical otorhinolaryngology journals were searched and randomized controlled trials were identified and analyzed according to the standards of evidence-based medicine. Results Two hundred and eighty seven issues were referred to and eighty-one randomized controlled trials were identified and analyzed. Of these randomized controlled trials, 34.57% (28/81) had definite diagnostic standards, 38.27% (31/81) had inclusion standards and 33.33% (27/81) had exclusion standards; only 1.23% (1/81) got the approval of the participants; 40.74% (33/81) had moderate sample size; 3.70% (3/81) had large sample size and no one mentioned sample size estimation; 81.48% (66/81) didn’t report the method of randomization and 38.27% (31/81) had baseline comparison; 18.52% (15/81) didn’t define the control interventions and 8.64% (7/81) even didn’t explicate the experimental interventions; 32.10% (26/81) used blank comparison; 86.42% (70/81) didn’t use blindness; 37.04% (30/81) didn’t mention the adverse effects; 23.46% (19/81) used accredited standards to evaluate the outcomes; l l.11% (9/81) mentioned the loss of participants and only 1.23% (1/81) treated the loss with statistics methods. Conclusions The quantity and quality of the otorbinolaryngologic randomized controlled trials in present review can not meet the clinical need. Higher quality of randomized controlled trials are required to improve the level of prevention and the treatment of otorhinolaryngologic diseases.
Objective We searched for evidence on mycophenolate mofetil(MMF) as a treatment for patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. Methods We attempted to find the current best evidence by searching The Cochrane Library(Issue 4, 2005), MEDLINE(1990 to June 2007), CMB(1980 to December 2006), CNKI(1979 to October 2007). We critically appraised the available evidence. Results Four systematic reviews and 6 randomized controlled trials of high quality were available. MMF and prednisolone were found to be an effective continuous induction-maintenance treatment for diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. MMF was associated with less drug toxicity. Conclusion Given the current evidence and our clinical experience, and considering the patient and the values and preferences of his family,MMF was given at 1 g daily in combination with steroids at the beginning. No obvious adverse effects occurred during 3 months of follow-up.
Objective To investigate the relationship of p53 codon 72 polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer in high incidence area of Hexi area of Gansu province. Methods The Arg/Pro polymorphism of p53 gene was detected by real-time PCR in 140 patients with gastric cancer, 110 patients with gastric precancerous lesion and 125 healthy controls; Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection was detected by Warthin-Starry silver method． Results The Pro allele frequencies of p53 gene in gastric cancer cases (0.543) were higher than those in gastric precancerous lesion (0.482) and controls (0.472). The Pro genotype had a more than 1.846 fold increased risk of gastric cancer 〔OR=1.846; 95% 〗CI (1.006-3.387); P =0.046〕． With statistical analysis， the genotype of p53 gene was correlated with location and Laurens histological type （ P ＜ 0.05）. A significantly higher risk of gastric cancer was also seen in cases with p53 Pro genotype, food, Hp infection, positive mind factor and positive family history． Conclusion There is a b correlation between the p53 gene codon 72 Arg/Pro polymophism and susceptibility to gastric cancer in Hexi area of Gansu province and the Pro/Pro genotype may be one of the major risk factors in patients with gastric cancer.
Clinical application history of prosthetic heart valves has been over five decades, and mechanical heart valves have satisfactory clinical outcomes for surgical treatment of valvular heart disease. The development history of mechanical heart valves experienced from the first generation of ball valves and caged disc valves to the second generation of single tilting disc valve, and to the third generation of bileaflet valves. In 1960， ball valve was first used for heart valve replacement in abroad. In 1963， China-made ball valve was also produced and used in clinical practice. In 1969， the second generation of single tilting disc valve was developed in abroad. In 1978， China-made single tilting disc valve was produced and widely used in clinical practice with satisfactory clinical outcomes. Since 1980 when it was first produced， bileaflet valve has taken the place of above 2 types of valves for its excellent performance, and become the mainstream product all over the world. Currently, the development of China-made bileaflet valves has lagged behind， and domestic mechanical heart valve market has almost been monopolized by foreign bileaflet valve products. Therefore, the development of ideal China-made mechanical heart valve deserves further research.