Objective To systematically review the intervention effects and safety of cardiovascular polypill for the relevant risk factors of coronary heart disease. Methods The randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on polypill in intervening coronary heart disease were searched in PubMed, CENTRAL, ICTRP, CBM, CNKI, WanFang and VIP from their inception to September 2012. Two reviewers independently screened the literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality. Then the analysis was conducted. Results A total of 5 RCTs from overseas were included. The descriptive analysis showed that: a) as for blood pressure, polypill was obviously superior to placebo in reducing SBP and DBP with a significant difference, but it didn’t reveal difference compared to the hypotensive drugs used alone; b) as for serum lipid, polypill was obviously superior to placebo in reducing TC, TG and LDL-C with a significant difference, but there was no difference between polypill and standard drug treatment; c) as for glucose, polypill was obviously superior to placebo in reducing glucose with a significant difference; d) as for adverse reaction, such adverse events as cough, bleeding tendency or gastritis, liver and kidney dysfunction were reported in the included studies; e) as for drug compliance, polypill showed no differences compared with either standard treatment or placebo. Conclusion Polypill has intervention effects on the relevant factors of coronary heart disease, such as hypertension and serum lipid, etc. Due to quantity limitation of the included trials, the above conclusion still needs to be further proved by performing more large scale and high quality studies. For lack of adequate evidence, this review does not recommend polypill as a primary care for cardiovascular disease.
Objective To explore the correlation between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) blood stasis pattern of coronary heart disease (CHD) and coronary angiography result, so as to screen dangerous patterns and provide evidence for the objectification of TCM pattern differentiation. Methods Literature on correlation between blood stasis pattern and coronary angiography results from January 1992 to May 2012 were searched in the following databases: China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (CAJD), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China Doctor Dissertation Full-text Database (CDFD), Chinese Selected Master’s Theses Full-Text Databases (CMFD), PubMed and MEDLINE. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, literature screening, data extraction and methodological quality assessment of the included studies were conducted. Then meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1 software. Results A total of 28 studies involving 4 901 patients were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that, there is a significant significance between blood stasis pattern and the following coronary angiography result, namely, number of culprit vessels (OR=1.38, 95%CI 1.08 to 1.77, Plt;0.05), severity of stenosis (OR=1.79, 95%CI 1.04 to 3.08, Plt;0.05), and Gensini score (OR=7.74, 95%CI 3.99 to 11.49, Plt;0.05). Conclusion Compared with other TCM patterns, CHD with blood stasis pattern easily tends to present multi-vessels lesions, more than 75% stenosis and higher Gensini score, indicating the condition of CHD with blood stasis pattern is more severe than with other patterns. Due to the discrepancy of pattern differentiation and the limited quality of original studies, this conclusion is insufficient to be fully applied into clinical practice, and more large scale and high quality clinical trials are required.
Objective To systematically review the methodological quality of guidelines concerning pharmacological intervention for complicated hypertension. Methods The databases and relevant guideline websites such as MEDLINE, EMbase, CBM, WangFang Data, National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC), Guidelines International Network (GIN), National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Clinical Practice Guideline Network (CPGN) were searched to collect the clinical guidelines concerning pharmacological intervention for complicated hypertension. By adopting the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE), the methodological quality of guidelines was assessed. Meanwhile the similarities, differences and features of drug recommendation in guidelines for different areas and diseases were analyzed by means of analogy comparison.Results A total of 21 guidelines concerning pharmacological intervention for complicated hypertension were included. The number of guidelines concerning hypertension complicated with coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, diabetes mellitus (DM) and kidney disease (KD) was 5, 5, 7 and 4, respectively. The publication year ranged from 2000 to 2011. According to the AGREE instrument, 19 and 2 guidelines were graded as Level B and C, respectively. The overall guidelines got low average scores in the domain of “Stakeholder involvement” and “Applicability”, including 9 evidence-based guidelines. There were totally 4 and 3 classes in terms of the level of evidence and recommendation, respectively; moreover, 10 and 6 expression forms were adopted in the level of evidence and recommendation, respectively. For hypertension with angina pectoris, -blocker (BB) and calcium channel blocker (CCB) were recommended unanimously. For hypertension with myocardial infarction, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and BB were recommended unanimously. For hypertension with heart failure, ACEI, angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) and BB were recommended unanimously. For hypertension with later stage of post-stroke, 76.47% guidelines recommended diuretic (D) and ACEI. For hypertension with acute stroke, recommendations were mainly based on the guidelines developed by American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA). For hypertension with DM or KD, the guidelines basically recommended that systolic/diastolic pressure should be controlled in the range of less than 130/80 mmHg. For hypertension with DM, ACEI were recommended unanimously, followed by D and CCB. For hypertension with KD, ACEI/ARB was recommended, while 3 of the 5 guidelines recommending CCB were from Asian. Conclusion The overall methodological qualities of complicated hypertension guidelines differs, with high proportion of evidence-based guidelines. The classification criteria of the levels of evidence and recommendation are still suboptimal. For hypertension with CHD, DM, KD and later stage of stroke, results from high quality clinical evidence are consistent, and the recommendations are basically unanimous, with no regional and quality difference. But in some clinical researches beyond reaching a consensus at present, the recommendation discrepancy exists, and there still remains controversy for hypertension with acute stroke.
Objective To evaluate the effect of a nurse-supported patient self-managed home-based cardiac rehabilitation programme for promoting quality of life of patients with coronary heart disease. Methods 167 eligible patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=83) and a control group(n=84). Patients in the intervention group joined a 12-week nurse-supported patient self-managed cardiac rehabilitation programme that included medication management, angina management, physical exercise, smoking cessation, dietary management, and family support besides the conventional care. Chinese Version SF-36 was used to assess the quality of life. Data collection was conducted at programme entry, programme exit, and three months follow-up. Results On completion of the programme, patients in the intervention group demonstrated significantly better improvements in six SF-36 quality of life domains, including general health, physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, mental health, and vitality. The effect on physical functioning and role-physical maintained at three months follow-up.Conclusions A nurse-supported patient self-managed home-based cardiac rehabilitation intervention has a positive impact on the quality of life of patients with coronary heart disease.
Objective To investigate the changes and significance of serum inflammatory factors in coronary heart disease ( CHD) patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome ( OSAHS) , and the treatment effects of continuous positive airway pressure( CPAP) . Methods A total of 76 CHD patients in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from October 2007 to October 2008 were enrolled. Polysomnography ( PSG) was performed in these CHD patients to identify if they were complicated by OSAHS. The levels of inflammatory factors including TNF-α, IL-6, high sensitive C-reactive protein ( hs-CRP) in serum were determined in the CHD patients and 23 normal subjects. The CHD patients with moderate-severe OSAHS ( AHI≥15 episodes/hour) were treated by Auto-CPAP for 3 months and all parameters above were measured again. Results There were 41 /76 ( 53. 9% ) of CHD patients had moderate-severe OSAHS and were treated with CPAP. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and hs-CRP were significantly higher in the CHD patients than those in the normal controls ( all P lt; 0. 01) , and were significantly higher in moderate-severe OSAHS patients than those in the non-OSAHS CHD patients. Auto-CPAP ventilation significantly decreased the levels of inflammatory factors in the CHD patients with moderate-severe OSAHS. Conclusions An obvious proinflammatory state is detected in CHD patients, and is aggravated with OSAHS. CPAP is a useful treatment for CHD patients with mediate to severe OSAHS.
Abstract： Objective To study the difference of gene expression profile of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells （MSCs） cultured in vitro from coronary heart disease patient with or without diabetes mellitus by Affymetrix Gene array. Methods One male patient at age of 53 years with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus was included in this study with the diagnosis of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Another male patient at age of 51 years with coronary heart disease without diabetes mellitus was also included in this study with the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. MSCs of the two patients were isolated and purified by the methods of density gradient centrifugation with lymphocyte separation medium for human and adherent filtration. The MSCs expression profile of cytokines and signal transduction genes were examined by Affymetrix gene array. Results There were 27 functional protein genes expression in the patient with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus relating to cell apoptosis, cytokine, and signal transduction. Among them, the expression of 13 functional genes, including TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF21, NGF, CAV2, ITGA8, TNS1, ITGA2, AKT3, MBP, MAP2, INHBA, FST, PLA2G5, increased significantly in the patient with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus. However, the expression level of 14 genes, including EPR1, BIRC5, HELLS, BCL2, HGF, CASP1, SEPP1, ITGA9, MAP2K6, RUNX3, TGFBR2, RUNX2, CTNNB1, CDC42, decreased significantly. Conclusion The gene expression profile of bone marrow MSCs from coronary heart disease patient with diabetes mellitus is significantly different from the patient with coronary heart disease patient without diabetes mellitus.
Objective To investigate the effect of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on patients with coronary heart disease and giant left ventricular dimension but without aneurysm. Methods The clinic data of 51 consecutive patients with coronary heart disease accompanied by enlarged left ventricle dimension without aneurysm, including 50 males and 1 female, undergoing CABG between January 2004 and December 2006 in Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University was retrospectively reviewed. The patients were at the age of 54-61 years with an age of 57.5±3.2 years. All patients received CABG, combined with aortic valve replacement in 7, mitral valve replacement in 16, mitral valvoplasty in 17 and tricuspid valvoplasty in 7. After surgery, perioperative complications and mortality were closely observed and followup for a period of 37 months was carried out. Results The number of distal anastomoses per patient was 2.0-4.0(3.8±1.1). Four patients died perioperatively (7.8%), among whom 2 died from malignant ventricular fibrillation, 1 from acute kidney failure and 1 from stroke caused by severe low cardiac output syndrome. All other patients were discharged from hospital with good recovery. After operation, 5 patients had atrial fibrillation and 11 had ventricular fibrillation, but all of those patients survived after proper treatment. The followup period for 47 patients was 37-49 months (43±11months), with a followup rate of 100%. No death occurred during the follow-up. Ultrasound cardiography in the followup period showed that there was a decreased left ventricular enddiastolic dimension (59±2 mm vs. 68±5 mm; t=7.320, Plt;0.05) and an improved left ventricular ejection fraction (45%±17% vs. 34%±15%; t=4.770, Plt;0.05) compared with those before operation with statistical significance. Conclusion CABG is an effective surgical procedure in the treatment of coronary heart disease with giant left ventricular dimension but without aneurysm.
Objective To investigate the effect of combined carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and offpump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) on patients with carotid arteriostenosis and coronary heart diseases. Methods A total of 121 consecutive patients with carotid arteriostenosis and coronary artery diseases underwent CEA and OPCAB between January 2003 and December 2009 in Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. There were 81 males and 40 females, with their ages ranged from 62 to 72 years (67.2±4.5 years). All patients had 3vessel coronary artery lesions, and there were 3 cases of left main coronary artery lesion. Unilateral carotid arteriostenosis (≥50%) occurred in 95 patients, and bilateral (≥50%) in 26 patients. The occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and other complications after operation was observed, and followup was carried out. Results All patients underwent unilateral CEA including 50 on the right side and 71 left. The mean block time of carotid artery in CEA was 20.5±7.0 minutes. The average number of distal grafts per patient in OPCAB was 2.9±0.3. None of the patients had stroke or myocardial infarction and no perioperative death occurred. Eightyseven patients felt well in terms of their neuropsycho symptoms; 32 felt no change; and 2 worsened. Follow-up was done for all the patients with a follow-up rate of 100%. The mean time of the follow-up was 67.5±12.5 months. During this period, none of the patients manifested stroke, myocardial infarction or neuropsycho symptoms. Conclusion Concomitant OPCAB and CEA is a safe and effective procedure in patients with carotid arteriostenosis and coronary artery diseases. It can reduce the rate of postoperative stroke significantly. However, longterm outcome of the procedure needs operative experience accumulation, longterm follow-up and observation, and serious research and illumination.
Surgical Therapy for Valve Diseases Combined with Coronary Heart Diseases in Patients Over or Below 70 Years Old YU Lei, GU Tianxiang, SHI Enyi, XIU Zongyi, FANG Qin, ZHANG Yuhai. (Department of Cardiac Surgery, The No. 1 Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, P.R. China)Corresponding author: GU Tianxiang, Email: email@example.comAbstract： Objective To summarize the experiences of valve replacement combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in senile patients by comparing clinical outcomes of valve diseases combined with coronary heart diseases in patients over or below 70 years old. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 49 patients who received valve replacement combined with CABG in our department from May 1999 to December 2007. Based on the age, the patients were divided into ≥70 years group (17 cases) with its patients at or above 70 years old and lt;70 years group (32 cases) with its patients younger than 70. The percentage of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) before surgery in ≥70 years group was higher than that in lt;70 years group(Plt;0.05). No significant difference was found in the other relevant factors between the two groups. The clinical index of patients in the two groups were compared and analyzed. Results There were significant differences between the two groups in such factors as the percentage of biovalve use (82.4% vs. 12.5%, χ2=23.311, P=0.000), the time of mechanic ventilation (34.5±29.3 h vs. 18.0±16.1 h, t=-2.542,P=0.014), the time of ICU stay (4.4±1.5 d vs. 3.3±0.7 d, t=-3.522, P=0.001), the time of hospital stay (21.4±7.7 d vs. 18.1±1.8 d, t=-2.319, P=0.025), the percentage of IABP use (29.4% vs. 6.3%, χ2=4.862, P=0.037), the percentage of pulmonary function failure (35.3% vs. 6.3%, χ2=6.859, P=0.009), the percentage of acute renal failure (23.5% vs. 3.1%, χ2=5.051, P=0.025), and the percentage of cerebrovascular accident (11.8% vs. 0.0%, χ2=3.933, P=0.048). There was no significant difference between the two groups in factors like the anastomosis of distal graft (2.5±3.1 vs. 2.4±14, t=0.301, P=0.758), the time of aortic occlusion (89.3±25.4 min vs. 88.5±31.0 min, t=0.108,P=0.913), the time of cardiopulmonary bypass (144.6±44.8 min vs. 138.3±52.9 min, t=0.164, P=0.871) and the mortality (5.9% vs. 6.3%, χ2=0.002,P=0.959). The perioperative myocardial infarction rate was zero in both groups. ≥70 years group patients were followed up for 2 months to 9 years with only 1 case missing. One patient who had undergone mechanic valve replacement died of cerebral hemorrhage 1.5 years after operation. Two died of heart failure and lung cancer 3 months and 6 years after operation respectively. For all the others, the cardiac function was at class Ⅰ to Ⅱ and their life quality was significantly improved. The follow up time of lt;70 years group was 1 month to 6 years and 5 cases were missing. Four patients who had undergone mechanic valve replacement died of complications in relation to anticoagulation treatment. One died of severe low cardiac output. Another died of traffic accident. Conclusion Surgery operation and effective perioperative treatment are key elements in improving surgery successful rate and decreasing mortality in patients with valve and coronary artery diseases. Valve replacement combined with CABG is safe for patients older than 70 years old.
Objective To discuss left ventricular reconstruction methods and effectivness in patients with left ventricular aneurysm after myocardial infarction. Methods Between June 2003 and August 2008, 23 patients with left ventricular aneurysm after myocardial infarction were treated. Of them, 13 were male and 10 were female with an average age of 61.2 years (range, 47-74 years). According to New York Heart Association (NYHA) criteria for cardiac function, there were 3 cases of grade I, 6 cases of grade II, 10 cases of grade III, and 4 cases of grade IV. The coronary arteriongraphy showed singlevesseldisease in 2 cases, double-vessel disease in 5 cases, triple-vessel disease in 16 cases. The locations of ventricular aneurysm were the apex cordis in 18 cases, antetheca and parieslateral is in 4 cases, and interior wall in 1 case. The left ventricular ejection fraction was 36.52%± 12.15%, and left ventricular diastol ic final diameter was (62.30 ± 6.52 ) mm. Nine patients received standard l inear repair, 6 patients received standard l inear repair after endocardial ring shrinkage, and 8 patients received patch suture after endocardial ring shinkage. Results Two cases died perioperatively, and re-thoracotomy was performed to stop bleeding in 1 case. Incisions healed by first intention in the other patients without early compl ication. Twentyone patients were followed up 7-48 months (median, 19 months). At 6 months after surgery, the left ventricular ejection fraction 46.52% ± 9.41% were significanly improved when compared with that at preoperation (t=2.240, P=0.023); the left ventricular diastol ic final diameter (52.23 ± 5.11) mm were significantly decreased when compared with that at preoperation (t=2.170, P=0.035). The cardiac function according to NYHA criteria was at grade I in 8 cases and at grade II in 13 cases. One patient died of cerebral hemorrhage at 18 months after operation and the activities of daily l iving recoverd in the others. Conclusion Individual theraputic methods are used according to patients’ different conditions for left ventricular aneurysm after myocardial infarction.